If I Lived During the American Revolution War

Role during the American revolutionary war
If I were living during the American revolutionary War and slavery times, I would contribute to the independence of my country. I would stand shoulder to shoulder with my countrymen and support the revolution in every possible way. I would join the army of the revolutionaries and do my best to thwart the efforts of the British Army against fellow Americans. Joining the forces is also logical because I presume myself to be young during that time. Apart from joining the Army, I would also help spread awareness among the people regarding the revolution and the effects and benefits of it. I would also encourage fellow youngsters to join the army. I would try and win the confidence of the fellow soldiers and also promote a culture of idea sharing as in no way we could defeat the British in straight forward means, we would have to be innovative. I would help develop ways in which the foe can be surprised during the war and advantage can be taken of the elements of surprise. I would also help the cause by storing weapons for the Army and provide as much assistance as I can. I would make maximum people join the forces and others to help the soldiers. I would help spread the ideas of freedom and liberation. I would also help train youngsters in various tactics of war that I will learn during the course of my training to help strengthen the American freedom fighters during the war. For the liberation of the enslaved Africans, I as a soldier would help African slaves escape from the clutches of their owners through any means fair or crooked. Also I would contribute to the American revolutionary war by freeing African slaves and helping them motivate to join the army of the American freedom fighters, so that number strength of the American soldiers can be increased to counter the more advanced British Army. Helping the slaves run away would help me win their confidence and also add value to the revolt against the colonial power. Also I would spread awareness regarding the movement in America and encourage fellow youngsters to do the same. Fighting for freedom is once in many lifetimes so it??™s a proud feeling to be part to such a revolt where people fought for rights and justice against oppression and exploitation.

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Closer Look
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Subscription Management

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Surveys & Polls

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Viral Marketing Component

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???If I Had Only Pressed It a Few Seconds Earlier, ??? He She Moaned

???If I had only pressed it a few seconds earlier,??? Tom moaned as vivid memories of the traumatic incident flashed back in his mind.
???Now that you have learnt the structure of the detonator, you have come to the most important part of the lesson??¦??? Tom??™s voice was filled with enthusiasm as he declared to the rowdy class of young recruits. ???You shall learn how to defuse a bomb.???
Tom is a second sergeant from the third battalion of the Singapore School of Combat Engineers. He was training a class of young recruits in preparation for the upcoming ???Live Firing??? exercise. ???Hey you! Recruit Tan Ah Meng! Pay attention to this topic! If you cut the wrong wire, this will blow up in your face.??? Pointing to the detonator, Tom warned his class of restless students as he singled out Tan Ah Meng.
Tan Ah Meng is a eighteen year old recruit who has just graduated from a neighbourhood junior college. He is the only son of a food stall hawker. His mother who helps out at the food stall is most proud of her son??™s latest accomplishment of three distinctions at the recent GCE A??™ levels examinations. Tan Ah Meng is a charm. He is fun loving and has an outgoing personality. He is famous and popular among the young recruits. As such he is often distracted by his friends as they tend to grab his attention whenever they get together in class.
?????¦Now that you have dismantled the bomb, look out for the blue and red wire. Gently untwine the wires to separate the blue and red wire, and then cut the blue wire??¦there, you??™re done.??? While Tom was emphasizing on how to defuse a bomb, Tan Ah Meng was busy sending messages on his phone, trying to organize a class outing after the ???Live Firing??? exercise the next day.
The following day, during the ???Live Firing??? exercise, it was Tan Ah Meng??™s turn to defuse the bomb. Tom was under a shelter several hundred meters away looking intensively through his binoculars. His right hand was over the emergency button ever ready to prevent any explosion. Tan Ah Meng on the other hand was perspiring profusely under the intense heat of the afternoon sun. Sweat was dripping down from his forehead to his eyes, blurring his vision. The heat was getting to his head. He was under immense pressure to defuse the bomb within the time limit. He had twenty more seconds to go before the timed explosion. Tan Ah Meng was panicking as he trembled to untwine the wires. He could not decide which wire to cut as he had not paid attention during class. This proved to be a costly mistake.
???KAaaaaaaaboom!??? Everyone who witnessed the explosion was in a state of shock and disbelief. Tom dropped his binoculars and left his mouth gapping. For a minute, the whole world stood still. Debris from the explosion came raining down from the sky. Just as the dust was settling, the paramedics rushed in with their stretchers to rescue the severely burnt Tan Ah Meng. Tan Ah Meng lost his right arm in the accident and suffered first degree burns throughout his whole body.
When Tom visited Tan Ah Meng at the Singapore General Hospital, Tan Ah Meng??™s mother was weeping uncontrollably and had to be consoled by her husband. Tom was feeling very uncomfortable as he felt responsible for what had happened to Tan Ah Meng. He apologized profusely to the Tan family ???If I had only pressed it a few seconds earlier??¦???

Cuse of the Lack of Democracy

CAUSES ESSAY
CAUSES OF DE DECLINE OF DEMOCRACY IN THE WORLD

The three main important things in a democratic system are: Freedom, Civil Rights and Political Rights. When there is a lack of democracy it means that an individual or group in a position of power is excluding others from participating in a system of government. This can happen when, for example, a country is ruled by a dictator or an autocrat. Currently we have many threats against democracy. The most outstanding causes of lack of democracy are: economic crisis, social crisis, and political crisis. Economic crisis is related to the excessive indebtedness, external and/or internal, that causes deficit that generate greater obligations to the states to take care of their services. In consequence, this causes problems of inflation,

unemployment and poverty. Economic crisis represents a genuine threat to democracies. This point has three important implications. First, when population feel that their quality of

standard of living are dropping, which is the moment when most people experience economic crisis, a good political action can help contain the negative impact of economic crisis, minimize its effects, and prevent bad economic conditions in the population. But, if the government fails in its actions, the quality of life of the population is at risk. This is a threat to democracy because the direct consequence would be a social problem when the population does not found a regular way to solve their own problems and they can take actions that affected democracy such as insurgency, looting, take the street and, in consequence destabilize the

democratic government. Second, the absence of an adequate political response to economic crisis will cause an intensifying of crisis, with the consequence that the economy will become an element of political discontent in the population, who can take desperate actions that can destabilize the democratic government. Economic crisis does not lead directly to political crisis, but is an important element that contributes to it.

Finally, democratic decline can not be understood merely in terms of technical-economic issues, but as the product of various political and institutional reforms that are essential for completing economic reform in one country.

Social crisis can erode the foundations of the democratic system. The conditions most contributing to a democratic future for a given country include democracy itself, prosperity, growth with moderate inflation, declining income inequality, a favorable international climate, and parliamentary institutions rather than dictatorial or autocratic ones. Countries that have had several years of economic recession, in which the living standards of the majority have decreased, income inequality has increased; and authority has shifted to one person without check and balances, there is a profound need, and disillusionment grows in a majority of the population. The major consequence of this frustration in the population is the possibility that a military regime could assume the power or

people could desperate elect a populist candidate to conduct the government. Either or both produces a breakdown of constitutional order and a decline of democracy.

Political Crisis is the third cause of the lack or decline democracy of democracy worldwide. This includes three important elements. The first element is a popular apathy and passivity and the absence of options other than the traditional ones. The second is the elite pacts, and the demagoguery of the leaders of individual nations. The third set of elements includes a fear of uncertainty and the restrictive effect of the new international and regional climate. The result is the dissociation and marginalization of individuals from society because the people are not generates political apathy and prompted a critical distancing of the public from democratic institutions and processes. The existence of widespread popular passivity, apathy, distrust of democratic institutions,

and absence of democratic options foment widens that the population look for desperate options in non democratic ways.

Finally, there is a real jeopardy of lack of democracy around the world. The most outstanding causes of lack of democracy are: economic crisis, social crisis, and political crisis. None of them alone can kill the democracy by itself, but economic crisis is a good factor to foment the social crisis and the social crisis is a good factor to help to reach the political crisis. Therefore the combination among these three elements can cause the lack of democracy in a country.

Iet Theory of Explanation

IET 105 HW7 Solution

Activity-Based Costing:
Determine the product cost per unit for each product using (1) Conventional method and (2) Activity-Based Costing method.

Resources|A|B|
Production, units|2,000|1,000|
Direct labor cost|$60,000|$60,000|
Direct materials cost|$20,000|$40,000|
Overheads: Indirect labor|$45,500|
Indirect material|$23,000|
Utilities|$24,000|
Rent|$15,500|
Other Overheads|$10,000|
Total Overheads|$118,000|

Overheads of:|Driver (or based on):|
Indirect labor|65% to A and 35% to B|
Indirect material|80% to A and 20% to B|
Utilities|KW:A used 160,000 KWB used 70,000 KW|
Rent|floor space:A uses 5,000 square feetB uses 4,000 square feet|
Other|difficult to classify to A or B(use conventional approach ??“ based on direct labor cost)|

1.
Conventional method
From|Product A Cost per unit|Product B Cost per unit|
Direct labor cost|$30.00|$60.00|
Direct materials cost|$10.00|$40.00|
Total overheads|0.5*118,00/2000=$29.50|0.5*118,000/1000 =$59.00|
Total Cost|$69.50|$159.00|
2. Activity-Based Costing method
Overheads of:|Driver (or based on):|In proportion of:|
Indirect labor|65% to A and 35% to B|0.65 to A|
||0.35 to B|
Indirect material|80% to A and 20% to B|0.80 to A|
||0.20 to B|
Utilities|KWA used 160,000 KWB used 70,000 KW|0.696 to A|
||0.304 to B|
Rent|floor spaceA uses 5,000 sq/ftB uses 4,000 sq/ft|0.556 to A|
||0.444 to B|
Other|Based on direct labor cost|0.500 to A|
||0.500 to B|
|||
From|Product A Cost per unit|Product B Cost per unit|
Direct labor cost|$30.00|$60.00|
Direct materials cost|$10.00|$40.00|
Indirect labor |$14.79|$15.93|
Indirect materials|$9.20|$4.60|
Utilities|$8.35|$7.30|
Rent|$4.31|$6.88|
Other overheads|$2.50|$5.00|
Total cost|$79.15|$139.71|

Curriculum Vitae

Joe Bloggs

0783727278 (Mobile/Primary)

I am a reliable, trustworthy person that takes pride in helping meet the demands of customer??™s needs. I have 4 years of retail experience looking to venture further into the growing industry willing to learn and develop new skills. A self motivated person that enjoys working in a busy challenging atmosphere, I am prepared to work hard in achieving results, adapting within the environment adjusting to any situation if required. A strong confident communicator that strives on building customer relations, helping people at all levels delivering exceptional customer service consistently, to a high level contributing 100% efforts in being the best. I work effectively as a team player in being flexible; communicating and listening to others view in order to carry out tasks meeting targets and tight deadlines relying on my own initiative. My spare time out of work is used to compose and produce music, sporting activities, travelling and socialising, family outings and modelling for my hairdresser in building a portfolio of my work.

Personal Details

Date of Birth: 17th January 1990

Address
1 Balleny Close
Oakwood
Derby
DE21 2UP

Work History

2009 Orange
Position Held: Temporary Sales Advisor
August 2009 to November 2009

Duties involved: – Advising on products/services, listening & communicating, cash handling, general customer service, hitting individual/store targets and housekeeping.

2008 Primark Ltd.
Position Held: Retail Operative
October 2008 to June 2009

Duties involved: – Serving customers, listening & communicating, cash handling, basic general customer service and housekeeping.

Voluntary Work

2007 Hooked
Duties involved: – Setting up ramps correctly, teaching kids to skateboard,
communicating & listening to set instructions, actively demonstrating
techniques through vast exercises.

Work Experience

2005 Aim Higher: University of Derby
Duties involved: – Preparing events & work for teenagers from different
schools, I.T based work in department copying up files & photocopying
files.

Education History

2006 Joseph Wright Centre
Located in Derby. Studied form 2006 to 2007

2001 daVinci Community College
Located in Derby. Studied from 2001 to 2006

Qualification Grade Achieved
|GCSE Short Course Religious Education |A* |
|GCSE Maths |B |
|GCSE Applied ICT: Double Award |B |
|GCSE Applied ICT: Double Award |B |
|GCSE Physical Education |C |
|GCSE Statistics |C |
|GCSE English |C |
|GCSE English Literature |C |
|GCSE Science: Double Award |C |
|GCSE Science: Double Award |C |
|GCSE Adult Numeracy | lvl. 2 |
|Keys Skills Problem Solving |lvl. 2 |
|Key Skills Communications |lvl. 3 |

References

Mark Bramley Jo Radford
Primark Ltd McDonald??™s Restaurant
28 – 31 Corn Market Unit C, Meteor Centre
Derby Sir Frank Whittle Road
Derbyshire Derby
DE1 2DR DE21 4RY
01332 297209 01332 835099

Ieps for Young Children

???Conner Schwartz???
AED-222
Sonya Van Etten
5/21/2010

Conner is a 7 year old boy who lives with his mom and younger brother Anthony in Clemmons, NC. He currently attends Southwest elementary school and is in Ms. Hamlin??™s classroom. Ms. Hamlin is a special education teacher and works directly with Conner and 3 other students who have been diagnosed with PDD-NOS. When Conner was 4 years old when he was diagnosed with PDD-NOS, also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not otherwise Specified. As of now the majority of Conner??™s day is spent in Ms. Hamlin??™s room, however in the morning he attends Ms. Griffin??™s first grade classroom for about 2 ? hours. Ms. Griffin??™s classroom has two aides, and all three of them work great with Conner. Along with the general classroom Conner also sees a speech pathologist, an occupational therapist and attends a reading group with other special need students.
At school Conner shows behaviors of a ???little professor???; He likes to lecture you versus having a two way conversation (PDD-NOS symptoms, 2009). He tends to tell you information and often goes into deep detail, but doesn??™t like when you interrupt him to try to discuss something with him. Teachers have also noticed that Conner talks to teachers, aides and other adults more often than children his own age. Conner struggles when it comes to socializing with other students, he doesn??™t seem to understand what to say or even how to respond to them (PDD-NOS symptoms, 2009). Unfortunately, this behavior has made it difficult for Conner to make friends with some of the other students. Many of the teachers have grown very fond of Conner and have high hopes and expectations for him, currently they enjoy listening to his ???speeches??? about dinosaurs! (Dinosaurs are Conner??™s current interest, and boy does he know a lot about them.) All together Conner does exceptionally well with his work, he puts a lot of effort into his work and shows a lot of ambition.
At home Conner acts similar to how he acts at school, with a little more ???socializing??™. At home Conner is familiar with everyone and does not get stressed by others; unfortunately we are still working on this at school. At school Conner feels overwhelmed by people. Conner gets along with his mom and brother Anthony until they tell him he is wrong (National Autism Resources, 2009). When he is told ???NO??? or told he is doing something wrong he throws tantrums. He likes to always be right and never told otherwise. Conner shows many different emotions at home and often ???mom??? doesn??™t know what to expect. Just like at school Conner likes his schedule and routine to stay the same and never change (PDD-NOS symptoms, 2009). Maintaining a schedule is easier at school than at home, since mom works a flexible job and rotating schedule. Conner doesn??™t usually know what to expect. ???Mom??? tries to tell Conner every week what her schedule is in advance, as well as telling him in the morning. When Conner??™s mother is not home his grandmother comes over to take care of Conner and Anthony.
Other than home the only places Conner typically goes to are doctor appointments. Conner has more doctor appointments than the typical 7 year old, due to his heart conditions. Mom tells us that taking Conner to the doctor??™s office is always a challenge. Since Conner is not familiar with other patience in the waiting room, they try to arrive just in time for appointments. This is in hopes that they don??™t have to stay too long in the waiting room. Since Conner see??™s the doctor on a regular basis he is familiar with his doctor (Dr. Roberts), if Conner knows ahead of time that they will be making a visit he does well. Since the nurses are all adults that Conner has grown to love, he loves to talk to them. Due to Conner??™s anxiety his mom tries to get shopping and other errands done while he is at school. On occasion though, she takes Conner to the post office or grocery store after ???preparing??? him for what he will see and find. When it comes to the grocery store Conner gets pre-occupied with the ???list??? mom gives him. Conner??™s mom makes a list for Conner to help her, he loves looking for the items.
Conner has many strengths; his cognitive development is right on track. Conner can do problem solving activities and does very well with simple math problems. We have noticed that Conner is very precise with everything he does (PDD, 2010). He likes having a correct answer without the chance of partially correct. For example 1+1 is always going to be 2. With socialization there are times when you can say things that may be inappropriate at other times. Conner has trouble deciding whether something is appropriate or not. Another strength Conner exhibits is with his gross motor skills, Conner has never had any difficulties walking, crawling or even learning how to skip. Conner loves to watch sports and we plan on finding a physical sport for him to play. Lastly, Conner has a fantastic memory so watch what you promise him!
Just like everyone else Conner has weakness??™. We are working on his socialization skills, but we have noticed that the problem is contained to socializing; he has never had a problem with his actual communication skills. He sees a speech therapist but this is to help him pronounce his words a bit better and more so to help with communicating with others. When it comes to communicating with others Conner is very shy and ???forgets??? what to say, or says inappropriate things. We have also noticed that Conner does not seem to have a ???filter??? for what he says to anyone (PDD-NOS symptoms, 2009). Conner show??™s some developmental delays. Conner??™s social and emotional development is our biggest concern. Conner has not showed much self control. We notice that he does not show us how he ???takes turns??? playing with something. According to his mom he took a little longer as a child to smile, and he often has extremes (social signs of Autism, 2009). Conner has laughed hysterically out loud in situations where he should have remained quite. He has also had outburst of tears and we cannot find a reason behind it. Conner exhibits trust issues, he seems very insecure. We believe the reason behind this is because at the age of two his younger brother was born and his father walked out on them. He will often ask his teachers why other students??™ ???daddies??? pick them up and he doesn??™t have a ???daddy??? to pick him up. Recently Conner has been doing well with behavior, although he still struggles. He often does what he chooses to do, rather than what he is supposed to do. Conner does not always pay attention or stay focused on activities. There are times when Conner will not focus on his work but will sit and focus on unusual objects for a lengthy period of time. We have witnessed Conner go to the refrigerator and open it then close it repeatedly.
Conner??™s diagnosis is PDD-NOS, Pervasive Developmental Disability-Not otherwise specified. PDD-NOS is an autism spectrum diagnosis (Autism Program at Yale, 2010). It is very similar to autism but individuals show fewer symptoms than students with autism. PDD-NOS is considered a diagnosis though and students will receive special education services. PDD-NOS is usually a milder case of autism and individual typically get diagnosed with autism later on in life (Autism Program at Yale, 2010).
When working with Conner teachers find it easier to use some assistive technology devices such as a weighted vest and pen to help him write. The reason behind this is to help with his tremors, so he won??™t shake as much while writing. This works very well for Conner and he now he can hold the pencil properly and write in a way that others can read. Teachers also use a variety of games throughout the day to help Conner learn to take turns and communicate effectively with other students (National Autism Resources, 2009). When it comes to behavior, teachers find different ways of keeping Conner on track. The only time Conner does not have a teacher or aide working with him directly is the limited time he is in the general classroom. To help Conner with this transition and to keep him from interrupting the rest of the class, Conner??™s desk is in the front row to the far end. He is not near as many other students, creating less anxiety and distraction for him, and if he does begin to act out an aide can quickly get to him without walking through the rest of the students (Rosenberg, Westling, &? McLeskey, 2008) This also gives him a straight shot of the white board and the teacher, creating less distraction (Rosenberg, Westling, &? McLeskey, 2008).
Conner is a student, who clearly has a special need. He has been diagnosed and is eligible for assistance under the IDEA act. There are many activities he excels at and can do stuff just as well as any other 7 year old boy, unfortunately there are a few things he will always struggle with. It is the job of teachers, aides and therapists to provide Conner with everything possible to help him succeed and live life to the fullest.
References:
* The National autism Resources, 2009; http://nationalautismresources.com/social-symptoms-of-autism.html
* PDD-NOS Symptoms, Abhishek Agarwal, 2010; http://www.articlesbase.com/mental-health-articles/pddnos-symptoms-simple-ways-to-identify-signs-and-help-your-child-739455.html
* Autism Speaks, 2010; http://www.autismspeaks.org/navigating/pdd_nos.php
* Autism program at Yale, Yale School of Medicine, 2010; http://www.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/autism/pddnos.html
* Rosenberg, M. S., Westling, D. L., & McLeskey, J. (2008). Special education for today??™s teachers: An introduction. UpperSaddleRiver, NJ: Pearson/Merill/Prentice Hall.

Curriculum Theory

Curriculum Theory
With reference to underpinning theory, discuss different curriculum approaches (for example, compare and contrast product and process approaches).
The curriculum is defined as quoted from a dictionary a ???programme of study??™ and was introduced in the late nineteen eighties. Mick Waters (Teachers TV) suggested the aims for learning should be that ???young people feel confident as individuals, successful as learners and responsible as citizens.??™ It was designed to make sure all learners got an entitlement to learn.
There are three different curriculum approaches which are praxis, process and product. Geoff Petty, Teaching Today,A practical guide, Third edition, 2004, Nelson Thornes, pg 401 suggests that ???many teachers use a mixture of process and product??™.
Praxis is the way we think about what we do and is concerned with bringing about something which is morally good. Yvonne Hillier, Reflective Teaching in Further and Adult Education,2002, Continuum, pg 19 suggests ???We must be careful not to see praxis as a form of technically correct behaviour: it is much deeper than that.??™ It is concerned with social, ethical and political action. We tend to think as praxis as how we are influenced by our upbringing, culture, our socially situated selves. We act by reflecting and link theory with practice.
The process approach shows the journey the learner has taken and was developed by Lawrence Stenhouse in nineteen seventy five. He along with other cognitive theorists such as Piaget, Bruner and Ausubel suggested emphasising the active role of the learner in processing and organising incoming information or stimuli. They were concerned with the processes involved in creating responses and with how learners perceive and make sense of knowledge and new ideas in light of their own experiences.
The product is the most commonly used approach due to it having a syllabus and being straight forward making it easy for teachers to use. It is very structured and it has aims and objectives which have to be met to pass. Ralph Tyler in nineteen seventy one produced a four part model for curriculum development also known as the objectives curriculum. He was interested in the end product which resulted with a qualification or certificate. Other behaviour theorists such as Pavlov, Watson and Skinner believe the only way to study learning is to base all conclusions on observations of how behaviour is influenced by interaction with the environment. They identified ways in which the responses people learn to make are influenced by the stimuli that precede and the reinforcement which follows those responses.

With reference to underpinning theory, discuss curriculum sequencing (for example, compare and contrast: linear, spiral, thematic and modular models).
There are mainly three ways of thinking about curriculum sequencing however it is possible for any single curriculum to have aspects of more than one of these models present within the overall scheme.
In a linear (behaviourism) curriculum sequence, the different stand alone units or modules that make up the curriculum as a whole are arranged one at a time according to the requirements of the programme. The learning is demonstrated through observation of behaviour and based on positive rewards. Once the units or modules have been taught, assessed and the results recorded, it is fair to say they do not have to be visited again.
In a spiral (cognitivists) curriculum sequence, the different areas or topics that make up the curriculum are studied more than once. The learner plays an active role in processing and organising incoming information. New ideas are related to existing knowledge which is understood and studied.
In a thematic sequence, some of the different units that made up the curriculum would include a theme that would run throughout the whole course. The theme would be seen as reinforcing work learners and reflecting on what has been taught.
In a modular sequence learners can select different modules and be certificated for each module. A good example of this is Functional Skills Hairdressing where the learner can choose between perming or setting hair. They are stand alone modules and each one the learner will receive a certificate once achieved.

Consider the implications of approaches and sequencing models for learners and teachers
There are different approaches and sequencing which could be used for teaching a programme of study. Curriculum as content is, in other words, what we teach. Teachers may use different approaches but will still have the same outcome which is to make sure all learners achieve. The praxis makes the learner think about what they are doing by reflecting and linking theory with practice. This is good for a learner who is on an apprenticeship. The process is the art and science of learning with an andragogical approach. This makes the learners think for themselves after the teacher has told the learners what to do. The product is a passive way of learning and for teachers one that is easy to use. Learners learning from linear sequencing may not necessarily progress in any way and as a teacher this could be quite demoralising and effect achievement rates as you would want the learner to achieve all. The spiral sequencing has different levels and by doing the same thing again could de-motivate the learner resulting in dis-engaging in the classroom or even worse failure to complete the course by leaving through boredom.

Discuss range of internal and external influences on curriculum within the LLUK sector; with particular reference to Domains A and D of the LLUK Professional Standards.
The government tell us the importance of up scaling the nations skills in Literacy and Numeracy and the need for a skill-based economy. Claus Moser stated that up to 7 million adults in England have difficulties with literacy and numeracy and one in five adults are functionally illiterate. As teachers working in the LLUK sector we must make a change to society by meeting the needs os the learners.

Ielts Essay

IELTS Task 2 Writing Preparation. Essay 3.
In many countries, children are not exercising as much as before and are becoming more and more overweight. What is your opinion of this situation
Write at least 250 words.
Child obesity is a cause for concern for all the stakeholders of society – from parents to educators, to governments and the medical system. Rightly so, as obesity, and at such a young age, poses hazards on quite a few fronts.

Thanks to industrialization and technology, people no longer have to indulge in as much physical exercise in order to earn money as they had to in the pre-industrial days. Jobs have become more and more sedentary with time, with the result that the importance of physical exercise and the benefits of maintaining ones physique become known only when the doctor is called in after some major health issue crops up. With parents taking their own physical exercise so casually, their attitude naturally reflects on their childrens lifestyles too.

The end result is that children invariably spend a lot of their free time sitting before the television instead of playing outside, and the only part of the body that gets ample exercise is the thumb that presses the buttons on the remote control. As if lack of exercise wasnt enough, unhealthy food has replaced nutritious food on the dining table. The increased level of lard leads to health problems for the child, straining not only the familys bills, but also
stretching the medical system as a whole. Research has revealed that obese kids are more likely to be accident-prone, and more susceptible to disease conditions such as diabetes, which lowers their productivity as adults when they begin working.

The remedy for child obesity begins at home. Parents need to be educated first on the negative side effects of the kind of lifestyles their children are leading. A healthy, and not obese, child is what should be aimed for.

IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers

IELTS Task 2 Writing Preparation. Essay 5.
In some countries children start full time school at the age of four.What are the advantages and disadvantages of this situation Write at least 250 words.
Essay 5
The age at which the child is mentally ready to leave the warmth and cosiness of home to sit in a classroom along with peers – is an issue of debate amongst psychologists. Usually, the minimum age when the child should begin schooling is dictated by the law of the land.

On the one hand there are countries, such as Sweden, where a child can enter school only after turning seven. On the other hand, there are countries, such as Northern Ireland, where a child can join school the moment they turn four. Advocates of the early starting age posit the rationale of catching the mind early. The developing brain has begun to become receptive to recognizing symbols such as the alphabet and the numbers, they say, and
it also is able to relate words with objects. The school only accelerates this process of learning, which helps them exit the “pipeline” that extends right up to college, earlier. Also, due to minimal distractions at this age, the brains concentration and retention capacity is at its peak, which schooling puts to use immediately.

Opponents of the early-starting-age however dismiss the analogy that equates children with “learning machines”. At the age of four, kids must be gently hand-held into the world of symbols and pictures at their own pace, they say, which is possible at home and at informal play centers. The cognitive overload of recognizing a set of alphabet letters and numbers at four years might be okay for some kids, but might permanently instill the loathe of a schooling environment in others, according to them.
Research on the impact of starting school early on individual cognition has been inconclusive thus far. While the debate continues to rage, the general opinion appears to be veering towards beginning school later rather than earlier.

Essay 6.
In the old days it was expected that we would have a job for life. Now we don??™t expect to have the
same job for more than a couple of years.
What is your opinon of this situation
Essay 6.
In the old days it was expected that we would have a job for life. Now we don??™t expect to have the same job for more than a couple of years. What is your opinion of this situation
Write at least 250 words.
There was a time when people completed their school or college, and eagerly sent out their resumes for a job in companies of their choice. The day the appointment letter hiring them for the job landed in their hands used to be a red-letter day. It was an indication that life was now well set, right up to retirement.
Job-hopping was not the norm, and company loyalty mattered more than anything else.
Today, “company loyalty” is a forgotten term. It is now very common to have a string of job tenures not lasting more than two years in ones resume. The churn in human resources is a sign of the times.
Downsizing and resizing are the order of the day, and one feels lucky upon leaving the place of work without the proverbial pink-slip being handed over. A resume is now a commodity, to be encashed at the next hiring round being conducted at the competitors gate next door. An economy that has been swinging up and down is in major part the reason behind this change of attitude.

The implication of the attitude-change is clear. The next job might require a set of skills totally different from what one had excelled at in the last job, and different from what one had learned back in college.

Todays organizational scenario demands a mindset that is open to the idea of learning new skills. It is not unusual, therefore, to see somebody who worked as a bean-counter for a garment-manufacturer in their earlier avatar, now marketing web-based solutions for an internet company. It is obvious that the good old days are not going to return any time soon. Survival in the job market depends on ones marketability, which in turn depends on whether one can supply the skill that is in.

IELTS Task 2 Writing Preparation. Essay 7.
More and more people these days are going into business for themselves, rather than work for someone else. Is this a positive or negative development
To what extent do you agree or disagree

These past few decades have thrown up a new breed of people who thrive on the challenge of being on their own. Increased globalization, advancements in technology and innovative models of doing business has generated a myriad number of avenues which has triggered the entrepreneurial itch in this new breed. Reporting for work at 9 am every morning at somebody elses doorstep to perform whatever job is expected, returning back home in the evening, and performing this routine for the entire work-week without break, was the idea of a perfect lifestyle for people till not many years ago. Not anymore. Now, the very idea of performing the same dull, boring routine day-in and day-out for an equally unimaginative employer makes a lot of people uncomfortable. These people see a lot of opportunities opening up around them, where they feel they can fulfil their potential and actually do something that they are passionate about. These are the risk-takers; they have an innate confidence that they can earn the same, if not more,amount of money as an entrepreneur than they could while in regular employment.

The interest in entrepreneurialism as a calling has also been motivated by the way business is being
conducted these days. Organizations are not only downsizing and flattening their hierarchy, they are also outsourcing many of their functions in order to concentrate on their core competence and cut down on employee costs. When entire departments are hived off, the people manning these departments turn around as entrepreneurs and offer their services to their own former employers. It is a win-win situation for both the employer and the now former-employee.
The trend towards setting up ones own business is a positive development. Owning ones own company is a matter of pride that no regular job can provide!
Essay 8
Essay 8.
University graduates no longer expect to get a job when leaving university and even if they do, end up working at a fast food restaurant until they can find a real job.
What is your opinion of this situation
Even in the best of times, youngsters never expected that a job with a description fitting their skills would
be waiting for them when they stepped out of the hallowed precincts of the university. Today, given the
uncertain times, the only thing they are certain of is the odd job in the fast food restaurant down the corner.
One reason for this mismatch between industry expectations and university outputs is that the academia is
always a step behind industry requirements. The skill sets of the batches that universities churn out year
after year do not find any takers in the industry because they are either for jobs that had dried up long ago,
or for jobs that are too few and far between.
Lack of adequate on-the-job training, while undergoing formal education, is another culprit behind the
malaise. All that the young graduate has to show by way of expertise is the sheet of paper with ornate
lettering that grandiosely announces the education undergone by the holder of the paper. It is a sad truth
of life that, after burning money on expensive education and after poring over the books in the library till
late in the night for so many years, at the end of it all, the sheet of paper that they had so coveted and
worked so hard for does not turn out to be their passport to a decent life.
It is time the industry and academia worked out a bridge that prepares job descriptions a number of years in advance, which can then be translated into course curriculum. Such a bridge does sound challenging, but is not infeasible to implement. Till such time, the fast food restaurant will continue to act as the bridge between academic learning and a real job.
Essay 9.
In the 21st century, experience is being prized by employers more than degrees. A person without a degree and 5 years experience is more likely to get a job over someone with 2 master??™s degrees and no experience. Is this a positive or negative development
Write at least 250 words.

Essay 9
Businesses the world over seem to have finally learnt their lesson the hard way: it is not the beautifully
printed parchments with their florid writing that announces the degree of the holder of the paper that
matter. What matters is the expertise that the person brings to the job. This realization has dramatically
dropped the stratospheric value of academic learning in the eyes of both the society and the learners. The
craze for degree, once at a frenzied high, has visibly ebbed.
Having burnt their fingers in experimenting with the bright young boys and girls who bring a bunch of fancy
degrees but have nothing to show by experience, employers are now increasingly veering towards people
who do not have any degrees to crow about, but who can place their finger on the pulse of the business
and tell you exactly what is wrong, how to set it right, and then proceed to set it right without making any
show of it.
It is not entirely the fault of the youth. Having sat through long hours in classrooms, listening to the steady
drone of the lecturer, working on problems that make umpteen presumptions in order to make them
solvable within the time-limits of the exams, these kids are fully versed in theory, but thoroughly out of
touch with the reality of the wide world. Is it any surprise then that, faced with a real-life problem in
corporate life, they are left scratching their head, with nary a clue about how to solve it
The preference of experience over academic degree cannot be viewed as a positive or negative
development. It is simply the demand of the times. For university degrees to still be relevant in today??™s
society, universities should arrange to provide on-the-job training within the curriculum, so that the
chances of the youth getting at least entry-level jobs will improve.

IELTS Task 2 Writing Preparation. Essay 10.
It has been proposed that a global currency, replacing all currencies, should be introduced.
What do you think of this idea
Write at
Essay 10
For several decades, the United States dollar had been the de facto world currency, striding powerfully on
the stage of world finance, money and banking. However, the recent crisis in the global economy,
triggered by the collapse of markets in the US, has lent credence to a long-standing demand for the
creation of a global currency, also known as “supranational currency”, to replace all other currencies. The
question is, will this lead to a more stable economy worldwide, and will this lead to the removal of the
disparity between the haves and the have-nots
It has been proposed that the hundreds of currencies that float around the world in the name of money be
consolidated into one single global currency, henceforth to be known as the “Terra”. Arguments in its
favour include the currency making international business more efficient, encouraging a freer flow of
foreign direct investment, and being inflation-proof. When this is implemented, e-commerce will become
simpler, though banks will be bereft of the exchange conversion commissions which they shave off and
keep to themselves every time monies cross borders.
Critics however paint a more pessimistic picture, citing reasons why the proposal can never be
implemented. The smaller, financially weaker countries will never be able to match the might of the more
powerful nations when it comes to the strength of their currency. This can also lead to undermining the
sovereignty of these countries, they claim. The conversion of European currencies to the Euro has not
been smooth sailing, they point out, and difficulties still exist.
In conclusion, therefore, it is best to thrash out the issues first. Any hasty decision might plunge the world
into a mess that will take a long time to unravel.

IELTS Task 2 Writing Preparation. Essay 1.

Children should be forced to read novels from every major genre including science fiction, sport,romance, horror and crime. Being widely read will mean children will have a better understanding of the world around them. To what extent do you agree or disagree Write at least 250 words.

Essay 1
For an average child growing up in the cocooned environs of home, school and playground, the world appears to be just what they see around them – doting parents who take care of all their needs, school staff who nourish their intellect with structured learning, and fellow friends whom to share and fight with. How should we make the children aware of the existence of the rest of the world and its grown-up ways
One very good way of introducing the real world that exists beyond this shielded life is by putting novels into their hands. As the child begins to turn page after page, they are inexorably drawn into the fantasy woven by the author. As they navigate the story arc, they begin to get an inkling of what exactly to expect when they become adult. Well-read parents or seniors can discuss the pros and cons of the plot over lunch or dinner with the child and give their thinking the right, constructive direction. Each genre – whether science fiction or sport, romance or crime and horror – has some different
perspective to offer to the child. Because the children themselves do not know which genre of novel might hold their interest, the best way is to let them discover what attracts them most by forcing them to read novels of all possible genres. Quite naturally, the kids will discard the genre that is not to their liking, and will gravitate towards the one that is.
The best way to give children an education that goes beyond the learning of the classroom is to inculcate in them the taste for literature. What better way to round out their personality than by gently handholding their imagination into the world of fantasy of diverse authors

IELTS Task 2 Writing Preparation. Essay 2.

The cost of air travel has fallen in recent years. Do you believe this is a positive or negative development To what extent do you agree or disagree Write at least 250 words

Essay 2

For a busy human being, travelling from point A to point B in the fastest possible time is more important than enjoying the scenery that presents itself to them along the way. When speed takes higher priority over the pleasure of the journey itself, what better mode of transportation than air trave l It is quite natural that the economics of transport have followed the burgeoning demand for speed. Governments around the world have opened air travel to the private sector in recent years. Businesses have been quick to capitalize, and rightly so, on the basic human need to take advantage of air travel that takes them to their destination as quickly as possible. As more and more airline companies set up shop,
seat capacities have risen exponentially. This has led to a situation where supply has matched – and in some cases exceeded – demand. Lowering of fares is a logical outcome of this competition. Presented with the alternatives of travelling by air versus travelling by rail or road, it is natural to opt for air travel because the fares have now become more-or-less equal. The time saved by reaching the destination earlier can be more productively spent elsewhere – perhaps in seeking more business, or spending quality time with the family, or simply in rest and recreation. Whether it is to rush to ones fiancee to make that lifetime decision, to ones ailing grandmother on the deathbed, to the meeting with the client on the verge of placing that all-important order, or to reach the exact spot on earth where the perfect solar eclipse is visible in time; whatever the motive, air travel is the way to go. Lower airfares are quite obviously a positive development. General IELTS Writing Example Questions for Preparation www.AdultEnglishSchool.com 35

IELTS Task 1 Writing Preparation. Letter 3.
Your new roommate is not doing his chores. Write a letter to him complaining about this situation. In your letter Describe his messiness and poor hygiene Complain about his lack of consideration Say what action you would like him to take You should write at least 150 words. Start your letter as follows

IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers

IELTS Task 2 Writing Preparation. Essay 3.
In many countries, children are not exercising as much as before and are becoming more and more overweight. What is your opinion of this situation
Write at least 250 words

Essay 3
Child obesity is a cause for concern for all the stakeholders of society – from parents to educators, to governments and the medical system. Rightly so, as obesity, and at such a young age, poses hazards on quite a few fronts. Thanks to industrialization and technology, people no longer have to indulge in as much physical exercise in order to earn money as they had to in the pre-industrial days. Jobs have become more and more sedentary with time, with the result that the importance of physical exercise and the benefits of maintaining ones physique become known only when the doctor is called in after some major health issue crops up. With parents taking their own physical exercise so casually, their attitude naturally reflects on their childrens lifestyles too. The end result is that children invariably spend a lot of their free time sitting before the television instead of playing outside, and the only part of the body that gets ample exercise is the thumb that presses the buttons on the remote control. As if lack of exercise wasnt enough, unhealthy food has replaced nutritious food on the dining table. The increased level of lard leads to health problems for the child, straining not only the familys bills, but also stretching the medical system as a whole. Research has revealed that obese kids are more likely to be accident-prone, and more susceptible to disease conditions such as diabetes, which lowers their productivity as adults when they begin working. The remedy for child obesity begins at home. Parents need to be educated first on the negative sideeffects of the kind of lifestyles their children are leading. A healthy, and not obese, child is what should be aimed for.

IELTS Task 1 Writing Preparation. Letter 4.

You lost your wallet on the train. No one has found it yet. Write a letter to the station master of the local train station. In your letter Describe your wallet and what was in it
Request information about their lost and found service Say what other action you would like the station master to take You should write at least 150 words. Start your letter as follows:

IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers
Letter 4
Dear Sir,
Subject: Loss Of Wallet On The Train
I am writing to inform you that I lost my wallet today (October 10, 2010) on the Sydney to Canberra train. I
had boarded the train from Sydney at 12:05 pm at Central station, and got down at Queanbeyan at 4:14
pm. I was in the third car from the engine.
It is most likely that the wallet must have slipped out onto the seat from my coat unnoticed, after I took it
out to pay a hawker. I realized that the wallet was not with me after reaching Henderson Street.
It is a dark-brown leather wallet with three compartments. I have my car driving licence and passport in it
along with a photograph of my fiancee. If I remember correctly, I was carrying AUD 500 in notes along
with some coins.
I shall be grateful if you can forward this letter to your lost-and-found service, and direct the officials of the
onward stations to urgently look into the matter. I shall also appreciate being informed the moment any
information about the wallet becomes available, as without the driving licence and the passport I am
helpless.
Thanks and regards,
Juan Bornaminit
Essay 4
The debate over the advantages and disadvantages of the structured, formal learning systems that we put
the children through has been raging ever since education institutions were first set up. Are we
constricting the childs innate creativity with the straitjacket of a practice that does not take cognizance of
their natural talents
There is no doubt that the present education system has its inherent limitations. Given the inadequate
infrastructure required for “customized” education, it is a very regimented pedagogy that has evolved over
time. This pedagogy administers a standardized dose of learning to the entire class based on curricula
prescribed by educationists. This approach is blind towards whether cherubic Mary sitting in the front row
likes Math or not, or whether the dreamy John sitting near the window likes Chemistry or not. Is it any
surprise, therefore, that given the chance, children invariably slip away towards doing things they really
like, rather than doing the school work that they do not
Young minds require a lot of freedom to explore the world from their own perspective. The music playing
from the play-station might hold to them more attraction than the set of problems they have been asked to
spend time on. Yet, despite all limitations, the present education system prepares children to join the
mainstream of society with ease. Without glossing over its flaws, the system does provide a standard
measure of individual scholastic abilities, which can help decide where exactly in society each individual
can fit.
In conclusion, a balanced approach that allows the child the freedom to do their thing, but at the same
time that keeps reminding them of the benefits of the education they are getting in school, might help give
them the motivation to complete the school assignments in time.
General IELTS Writing Example Questions for Preparation www.AdultEnglishSchool.com 37
IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers
Letter 5
Dear Sir,
Subject: Bad Treatment Of Patient In Your Hospital
Through this letter, I would like to bring to your attention the shabby treatment received by my friend, Mrs.
Sienna Boland, at the hands of the hospital staff while she was admitted here for a surgical procedure.
Mrs. Boland was admitted for laryngotomy on October 2nd, 2010. The entire period of her stay in the
hospital, according to her, was not at all a satisfactory experience.
The behaviour of the nursing staff was casual, bordering on the indifferent. Her requests for assistance
were fulfilled almost cursorily. The rooms were never cleaned. The doctors always seemed to be in a
hurry, and never set her mind at ease about the procedure she was undergoing. Mrs. Boland has vowed
never to return to the hospital.
As a responsible citizen, I would like to impress upon you the hospitals deteriorated standards. Your
administration must pay more attention to cleanliness and hygiene. Further, you must inculcate
professionalism and sensitivity in the staff. Only then will confidence be established in the minds of the
public about the quality of healing in the hospital.
I trust that you will address the issues in this letter immediately.
Kind regards,
Con Cerne
Essay 5
The age at which the child is mentally ready to leave the warmth and cosiness of home to sit in a
classroom along with peers – is an issue of debate amongst psychologists. Usually, the minimum age
when the child should begin schooling is dictated by the law of the land. On the one hand there are
countries, such as Sweden, where a child can enter school only after turning seven. On the other hand,
there are countries, such as Northern Ireland, where a child can join school the moment they turn four.
Advocates of the early starting age posit the rationale of catching the mind early. The developing brain has
begun to become receptive to recognizing symbols such as the alphabet and the numbers, they say, and
it also is able to relate words with objects. The school only accelerates this process of learning, which
helps them exit the “pipeline” that extends right up to college, earlier. Also, due to minimal distractions at
this age, the brains concentration and retention capacity is at its peak, which schooling puts to use
immediately.
Opponents of the early-starting-age however dismiss the analogy that equates children with “learning
machines”. At the age of four, kids must be gently hand-held into the world of symbols and pictures at
their own pace, they say, which is possible at home and at informal play centers. The cognitive overload of
recognizing a set of alphabet letters and numbers at four years might be okay for some kids, but might
permanently instil the loathe of a schooling environment in others, according to them.
Research on the impact of starting school early on individual cognition has been inconclusive thus far.
While the debate continues to rage, the general opinion appears to be veering towards beginning school
later rather than earlier.
General IELTS Writing Example Questions for Preparation www.AdultEnglishSchool.com 38
IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers
Letter 6
Dear Sir
Subject: Recurrent Problems With Car Repair
I had brought my car – a 2000 Holden Rodeo DX TFR9 – to your garage on September 29th, 2010 for an
overhaul. Since then I have had to return the car to the garage three more times, and still its problems
dont seem to end.
After the overhaul, on returning home I discovered a leaking oil sump. After this problem was sorted out,
the very next day there was a loud noise in the engine bay. Your staff had to haul the vehicle back to the
garage with a trailer to carry out repairs. Today, there was a strange noise in the engine bay yet again.
I fail to understand why the garage is unable to resolve the cars problems once and for all. Is it a case of
gross negligence, or downright incompetence I am sure you understand the negative impact an
unsatisfied customer can have on your business.
I would like you to direct your most experienced personnel to take a look and fix the cars problems to their
most competent best immediately.
I look forward to receiving your response to this matter.
Yours faithfully
Rick Toff
Essay 6
There was a time when people completed their school or college, and eagerly sent out their resumes for a
job in companies of their choice. The day the appointment letter hiring them for the job landed in their
hands used to be a red-letter day. It was an indication that life was now well set, right up to retirement.
Job-hopping was not the norm, and company loyalty mattered more than anything else.
Today, “company loyalty” is a forgotten term. It is now very common to have a string of job tenures not
lasting more than two years in ones resume. The churn in human resources is a sign of the times.
Downsizing and resizing are the order of the day, and one feels lucky upon leaving the place of work
without the proverbial pink-slip being handed over. A resume is now a commodity, to be encashed at the
next hiring round being conducted at the competitors gate next door. An economy that has been swinging
up and down is in major part the reason behind this change of attitude.
The implication of the attitude-change is clear. The next job might require a set of skills totally different
from what one had excelled at in the last job, and different from what one had learned back in college.
Todays organizational scenario demands a mindset that is open to the idea of learning new skills. It is not
unusual, therefore, to see somebody who worked as a bean-counter for a garment-manufacturer in their
earlier avatar, now marketing web-based solutions for an internet company.
It is obvious that the good old days are not going to return any time soon. Survival in the job market
depends on ones marketability, which in turn depends on whether one can supply the skill that is in
demand.
General IELTS Writing Example Questions for Preparation www.AdultEnglishSchool.com 39
IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers
Letter 7
Dear Sir,
Subject: Compensation For Using Taxi Due To Delayed Train
I wish to bring to your attention the discomfort and inconvenience I had to undergo recently while using
your public transport service.
I am a regular commuter of the intercity train and use it to travel everyday from Graythorne station to
Bowen Hills station. From here I switch to another train to reach Toowong, my home station. On the 10th of
October 2010 trains were delayed on the Ferny Grove Line where Graythorne is located. Due to the delay,
I reached Bowen Hills at 10:30 pm instead of the usual 7:00 pm. Since the last train from Bowen Hills to
Toowong leaves at 7:30 pm, I had no alternative but to hire a taxi in order to reach home.
It cost me AUD $300 that night to travel from Graythorne to Toowong by private taxi. Employed as an
intern with a small firm in Graythorne, I can ill-afford to pay this amount, which I had to borrow from my
room-mate that night.
I therefore request you to arrange for this money to be compensated to me at the earliest. I would be
happy to forward you a copy of the taxi receipt.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Kind regards
Amy Pond
Essay 7
These past few decades have thrown up a new breed of people who thrive on the challenge of being on
their own. Increased globalization, advancements in technology and innovative models of doing business
has generated a myriad number of avenues which has triggered the entrepreneurial itch in this new breed.
Reporting for work at 9 am every morning at somebody elses doorstep to perform whatever job is
expected, returning back home in the evening, and performing this routine for the entire work-week
without break, was the idea of a perfect lifestyle for people till not many years ago. Not anymore. Now, the
very idea of performing the same dull, boring routine day-in and day-out for an equally unimaginative
employer makes a lot of people uncomfortable. These people see a lot of opportunities opening up around
them, where they feel they can fulfil their potential and actually do something that they are passionate
about. These are the risk-takers; they have an innate confidence that they can earn the same, if not more,
amount of money as an entrepreneur than they could while in regular employment.
The interest in entrepreneurialism as a calling has also been motivated by the way business is being
conducted these days. Organizations are not only downsizing and flattening their hierarchy, they are also
outsourcing many of their functions in order to concentrate on their core competence and cut down on
employee costs. When entire departments are hived off, the people manning these departments turn
around as entrepreneurs and offer their services to their own former employers. It is a win-win situation for
both the employer and the now former-employee.
The trend towards setting up ones own business is a positive development. Owning ones own company
is a matter of pride that no regular job can provide!
General IELTS Writing Example Questions for Preparation www.AdultEnglishSchool.com 40
IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers
Letter 8
Dear Sir,
Subject: Damage Of Antique Goods Due To Faulty Ceiling
This letter is written with reference to the apartment located on the first floor, Oaks Grand Building, 187
Kent Street, Sydney, and leased by me with effect from October 1st, 2009.
Last night, I had left an open box of my vinyl music records on the centre table of the main hall before
going to bed. I was in the process of cataloguing and archiving them for my collection. This morning I
discovered that water from last nights rain had seeped through the cracks in the ceiling and dropped on
these records, damaging them permanently. These records are antique, one-of-a-kind and therefore
priceless.
I have some other pieces of furniture that are similarly highly priced. I do not wish to see them damaged
because of any faulty construction. I am also concerned that the resultant mildew and mould may pose
health hazards.
I therefore ask you to arrange to rectify the fault in the ceiling within the next thirty days, failing which I
shall be forced to take legal redress. I am enclosing digital images of the leaking ceiling and the damaged
records for your perusal. I also require compensation for these records and would be happy to forward you
copies of the valuation certificates.
I look forward to your response to this matter.
Yours faithfully,
J Chow
Essay 8
Even in the best of times, youngsters never expected that a job with a description fitting their skills would
be waiting for them when they stepped out of the hallowed precincts of the university. Today, given the
uncertain times, the only thing they are certain of is the odd job in the fast food restaurant down the corner.
One reason for this mismatch between industry expectations and university outputs is that the academia is
always a step behind industry requirements. The skill sets of the batches that universities churn out year
after year do not find any takers in the industry because they are either for jobs that had dried up long ago,
or for jobs that are too few and far between.
Lack of adequate on-the-job training, while undergoing formal education, is another culprit behind the
malaise. All that the young graduate has to show by way of expertise is the sheet of paper with ornate
lettering that grandiosely announces the education undergone by the holder of the paper. It is a sad truth
of life that, after burning money on expensive education and after poring over the books in the library till
late in the night for so many years, at the end of it all, the sheet of paper that they had so coveted and
worked so hard for does not turn out to be their passport to a decent life.
It is time the industry and academia worked out a bridge that prepares job descriptions a number of years
in advance, which can then be translated into course curriculum. Such a bridge does sound challenging,
but is not infeasible to implement. Till such time, the fast food restaurant will continue to act as the bridge
between academic learning and a real job.
General IELTS Writing Example Questions for Preparation www.AdultEnglishSchool.com 41
IELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers
Letter 9
Dear Sir,
Subject: Wrongly Charged Bill Of $800
I was a subscriber to the “Freedom Plan” of your mobile service from May 2008. In September 2008,
attracted by the features of the then newly-announced “Complete Plan”, I switched over to this plan. On
October 9, 2009, I terminated my subscription altogether from your services and have subscribed to
another service provider.
However, I have received a bill from your company for $800 for “breaking a 24-month contract with the
company” purported to have been agreed upon by me when I signed up for the “Complete Plan”. This is
shocking, to say the least.
The sales person who presented the papers for me to sign for the switch-over from “Freedom” to
“Complete” never informed me about any such contract. To my mind, this is an underhand way of doing
business. Through this letter therefore, I am hereby rejecting this bill.
Further, I would like to suggest that the 24-month contract be highlighted in all your future interactions with
prospective customers who might be interested in subscribing to the “Complete Plan”.
Yours faithfully,
Fonny Busnis
Essay 9
Businesses the world over seem to have finally learnt their lesson the hard way: it is not the beautifully
printed parchments with their florid writing that announces the degree of the holder of the paper that
matter. What matters is the expertise that the person brings to the job. This realization has dramatically
dropped the stratospheric value of academic learning in the eyes of both the society and the learners. The
craze for degree, once at a frenzied high, has visibly ebbed.
Having burnt their fingers in experimenting with the bright young boys and girls who bring a bunch of fancy
degrees but have nothing to show by experience, employers are now increasingly veering towards people
who do not have any degrees to crow about, but who can place their finger on the pulse of the business
and tell you exactly what is wrong, how to set it right, and then proceed to set it right without making any
show of it.
It is not entirely the fault of the youth. Having sat through long hours in classrooms, listening to the steady
drone of the lecturer, working on problems that make umpteen presumptions in order to make them
solvable within the time-limits of the exams, these kids are fully versed in theory, but thoroughly out of
touch with the reality of the wide world. Is it any surprise then that, faced with a real-life problem in
corporate life, they are left scratching their head, with nary a clue about how to solve it
The preference of experience over academic degree cannot be viewed as a positive or negative
development. It is simply the demand of the times. For university degrees to still be relevant in today??™s
society, universities should arrange to provide on-the-job training within the curriculum, so that the
chances of the youth getting at least entry-level jobs will improve.
GeneralIELTS Writing Preparation – Suggested Answers
Letter 10
Dear Sir,
I am a regular customer of your store. Two days ago, on October 9th, 2009, I had the occasion to purchase
a bag of sultanas from your store (invoice number 2009/517) on my way home from work.
After breaking open the seal of the bag at home, my children felt a certain gooeyness as they put their
hands in to bring out the raisins. We dropped the entire content of the bag in a bowl and saw to our horror
that all the sultanas were sticking together, as if glued, forming a squishy mass. A dark brown liquid oozed
from the mass. A putrid smell emanated from the bag. We had no option but to get rid of the whole thing.
In a hurry, I did not look at the packaging closely while at the store, but now when I inspect it, I see that
the expiry date is not to be found anywhere.
Your staff should be more alert when placing goods on the shelves.
I would like you to arrange for a replacement of the bag of sultanas when I visit the store again this week.
Failing that I would like to request a refund.
I look forward to your immediate response to this matter.
Yours faithfully,
Sue Permum
Essay 10
For several decades, the United States dollar had been the de facto world currency, striding powerfully on
the stage of world finance, money and banking. However, the recent crisis in the global economy,
triggered by the collapse of markets in the US, has lent credence to a long-standing demand for the
creation of a global currency, also known as “supranational currency”, to replace all other currencies. The
question is, will this lead to a more stable economy worldwide, and will this lead to the removal of the
disparity between the haves and the have-nots
It has been proposed that the hundreds of currencies that float around the world in the name of money be
consolidated into one single global currency, henceforth to be known as the “Terra”. Arguments in its
favour include the currency making international business more efficient, encouraging a freer flow of
foreign direct investment, and being inflation-proof. When this is implemented, e-commerce will become
simpler, though banks will be bereft of the exchange conversion commissions which they shave off and
keep to themselves every time monies cross borders.
Critics however paint a more pessimistic picture, citing reasons why the proposal can never be
implemented. The smaller, financially weaker countries will never be able to match the might of the more
powerful nations when it comes to the strength of their currency. This can also lead to undermining the
sovereignty of these countries, they claim. The conversion of European currencies to the Euro has not
been smooth sailing, they point out, and difficulties still exist.
In conclusion, therefore, it is best to thrash out the issues first. Any hasty decision might plunge the world
into a mess that will take a long time to unravel.

Curriculum Development Form Inclusive Practice

Unit 5 ??“ Curriculum Development form Inclusive Practice Contents: Unit 5.1 – Critically analyse the significance of theories, principles and models of inclusive curriculum to the design and implementation of programmes of study, within two different contexts.Unit 5.2 – Produce a critical reflection on the significance of these principles, models and theories of inclusive curriculum the planning and delivery of teaching in own specialist area.Unit 5.3 ??“ Produce a written reflection on the impact of these insights on own practice and professional development.Bibliography and References Page:1-567-89-10
Curriculum Development for Inclusive Practice Unit 5.1 ??“ Critically analyse the significance of theories, principles and models of inclusive curriculum to the design and implementation of programmes of study, within two different contexts.

This assignment will critically analyse the process of curriculum from the perspective of two different contexts within the military environment, Command Leadership and Management (CLM) and Personal and Community Development Learning (PCDL). This assignment will consider the significance of both contexts in terms of planning and delivery and how they impact on practice. Before identifying the significance of these contexts it is important to look at the contested nature of curriculum. Curriculum as an idea is hardly new, you could argue how we understand and theorise it to fit a particular ideology or period in history is open to debate. Deriving from the Latin ???currere??? – to run and its associated noun, translated as course, it has come to be broadly understood as following a course of study (Jarvis 1983:245).

Interpreting curriculum requires a certain degree of flexibility; numerous definitions exist which only seem to add more weight to the contested nature. One could draw on the correlation of food to define curriculum:

???The curriculum is a recipe for learning, what arrives on the plate depends on the perceptive view the teacher has of the ingredients, their range of palate and resources available???.
Hillman, 2011 DTTLS

Most theorists would argue curriculum defines what happened in an educational setting, where it comes from and what it consists of is open to debate. The ???educational setting??? of CLM is more defined, specifically designed by Training Development Advisors to prepare soldiers to cope with the in-barracks and operational demands placed upon them. In order to analyse CLM effectively it is useful to consider the following curriculum models:

1. Product (Behaviourist)
2. Process (Humanist)
3. Situational (Both)
4. Knowledge (Cognitivist)

The CLM curriculum derives from a ???Formal Training Statement??? whereby Director Training Army sets out the core, legislative and accreditation requirements to be obtained. The curriculum covers a range of subjects such as learning effectively, motivation theories and understanding how the Army supports UK security policy. Basic skills are measured through the process of written assessments and formal discussions; students must demonstrate knowledge and ability at Basic Skills Level 2. The curriculum is designed to exercise the student??™s cognitive domain by ???scaffolding??? the assimilation of knowledge and information, the effective domain is measured by ???attitudinal??? lessons such as Equality and Diversity, Values and Standards of the British Army and Cultural Awareness. The curriculum seeks to go beyond simple awareness of values and beliefs, it encourages students to rationalise their attitudes by self-reflection and perhaps change the way they conduct themselves.

At first glance one could argue the curriculum is solely aligned to Bloom??™s Taxonomy of learning (Curzon 2004:165) however, the curriculum is also influenced by Tyler??™s Product (Behaviourist) Model. (Walkin 1990:100) Each lesson within CLM is supported by Instructional Specifications and Enabling Objectives, these provide ???guided learning??? by stating clear aims and objectives with results that can be measured and achieved. Students demonstrate competence through written tests, formative questioning and classroom discussions. The design and application of the CLM curriculum can also be rooted to Stenhouse??™s Process Model, CLM requires students to ???use and develop the content, not simply receive it passively??? (Armitage et al, 2007:187). The focus is on the ???how??? of learning and encourages students to link their learning to experiences, allowing them to make informal decisions based on what they have learned. The CLM curriculum also benefits from Lawton and Skilbeck??™s Situational Model by focusing on the ???cultural context of learning???. (Armitage et al, 2007:188) The current Operational environment drives the requirement to embed counterinsurgency and cultural awareness linked to Afghanistan. You could argue the CLM curriculum is mainly based on the Product Model but draws considerable strands from the others in order to make it relevant, logical and current.

The CLM curriculum is best described by Doll

???The curriculum of school is the formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills and after attitudes, appreciations and values under the auspices of that school??? www.multiage-education.com/curriculum

One could argue Doll??™s definition is not aligned to a Post Compulsory educational setting however, it seems to fit the CLM curriculum as it explicitly refers to the Kolb Learning Cycle (Coles 2004:175) in terms of abstract concepts such as attitudes, appreciations and values, key concepts in the development of the ???strategic soldier???. ???The era of the strategic soldier is here, the soldier of today must possess professional mastery of warfare, but match this with political and media sensitivity???. Lieutenant General Peter Leahy, Chief of Australian Army Oct 2002 The second area of analyses explores the provision of Personal and Community Development Learning (PCDL), the Learning and Skills Council defines PCDL as: ???Learning for personal development, cultural enrichment, intellectual or creative stimulation and for enjoyment???. Curriculum for Diversity Guide 2007

The responsibility for setting curriculum direction to enable the Army Educational Services to deliver PCDL is the function of Director Education Training Services Army; the Directorate dissolves this responsibility for British Forces Germany (BFG) to Educational Training Services Germany. The PCDL curriculum is designed specifically with the German ???dynamic??? in mind, it considers the cultural and social differences as well as the restricted geographical foot print of BFG.

The unique nature of BFG PCDL allows each Army Education Centre to develop and design a curriculum based on tutor availability, their academic attainment, resources, human capital and financial constraints, One could draw comparisons from Every Learner Matters in terms of curriculum development, (for example): 1. Offer flexible and wide-ranging opportunities for learners through cross-partnership (for example, PTLLS/CTLLS through Yeovil College). 2. Citizenship programmes that enable learners to understand their local community (for example, ESOL for Foreign and Commonwealth soldiers or local German language courses). 3. Equal opportunities issues relating to gender, race and disability are mapped with learning programmes so that learners are aware of their importance to the effective working of an inclusive society (for example, re-allocation of resources to allow first floor access, zero tolerance EO&D policy and accreditation mapping for Foreign and Commonwealth learners). Ensuring Every Learner Matter DTLLS 2011 To ensure wider community engagement and opportunity for all, the PCDL curriculum provides learning in the course of academic, vocational and recreational provision. The complex nature of PCDL, the breadth of courses and their categorisation requires application and analysis of the following models of curriculum:

1. Product (Behaviourist)
2. Process (Humanist)
3. Situational (Both)
4. Linear (Humanist)
5. Spiral (Humanist)

The academic provision offered through PCDL correlates to Tyler??™s model of curriculum (Armitage 2007:186) (for example, the objectives set for German language course allows students to actively participate and contribute to the local community). One could also make comparisons to Lawton??™s situational model (Armitage 2007:188) Lawton argues the delivery of curriculum should echo ???cultural sub-systems??? (for example, specific German language courses targeted at the Royal Military Police in order to encourage and develop cross-party policing with the German Civil Police). This example could also be extended to Stenhouse??™s Process Model (for example, the professional ability of tutors to understand the concepts and principles of their own subject ensure learners use and develop the content within the world of work).

The interchangeable nature of the PCDL curriculum in terms of vocational and recreational provision could draw comparisons with a negotiated curriculum (Tummons 2011:12). It is not uncommon for PCDL tutors to negotiate course specifics such as assessment methods and modules delivered to suit the wider community (for example, First Aid for infants attracts a large female audience, the logistic requirements of child care, course timings and transport necessitates a level of negotiation).

You could argue this style of curriculum draws comparisons with Lawton??™s romantic curriculum in terms of originality and freedom (Jarvis 2004:251). This curriculum is more aligned to adult education and Knowles interpretation of andragogy. Correlation between Linear and Spiral Models of curriculum and their relation to Roger??™s humanistic approach can also be made as suggested by Curzon:

???Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as having relevance for his own purpose???
(Curzon 2004:118)

You could argue those learners involved in negotiating their own learning journey find relevance and purpose to their own achievements. One could therefore draw the conclusion that the PCDL curriculum is all encompassing to fit political, social, economic and educational requirements of service personnel and their families. Unit 5.2 – Produce a critical reflection on the significance of these principles, models and theories of inclusive curriculum the planning and delivery of teaching in own specialist area.

My reflection has brought me to conclude that the many facets of curriculum development remain ever evolving and contested. It is clear curriculum development is a complex subject that requires continuous reviewing in order to remain effective and which has no unifying theory. The required reading has led me to consider Gagne??™s view in 1965 and his concerns of curriculum may possibly remain extant, Gagne argued the teacher and student are at ???opposite ends of the log??? in the educational system (Gagne 1965:263) Gagne suggests the decisions made that effect the primary function of curriculum must be made by that ???tremendously wise??? person (the teacher) on reflection, Gagne concerns on who makes decisions for a modern educational system remains a contested issued.

One of the key cathartic lessons learnt is that it would be very short sighted to consider only one model of curriculum. The application of several models, or an element of those models should be employed to fit the desired outcome. To employ just one model would prove too restrictive; theories could be interwoven throughout the curriculum depending on the preferred end product. Research has led me to believe curriculum development is a multifaceted process driven by political, social, economic and educational demands. Curriculum cannot afford to remain static, technological advances or change in industrial standards will guide curricula on a continual process of evolution and improvement.

I would argue my ability or confidence to develop and design a curriculum has been enhanced by a better understanding of the central themes and relevant theories of curricula. The inception of curriculum within an educational system was driven by the need of the nation aligned to the world of work. I therefore conclude curriculum development is underpinned by plain old common sense, the application of which results in an effective learning programme. Unit 5.3 – Produce a written reflection on the impact of these insights on own practice and professional development. One could argue the ???situational analyses??? of any curriculum is driven by social, political and economic factors. The impact on the relevance, value or worth of curriculum must be defended by those in authority (as suggested by Gagne) in order to represent the expression of educational ideas in practice. However, one must be mindful what is planned and delivered may not be what is experienced by the learner therefore, what is shaped by different forces and stakeholders must has the desired impact on human capital. The ???situational analyses??? of the political and military posturing within Afghanistan shapes these forces in order to contextualise the CLM curriculum.

The political and military decisions taken reverberate down to the classroom; these drivers shape curriculum and impact directly on human capital. The military situation in Afghanistan today requires a different approach to training and education of soldiers, the operational environment required soldiers to ???critically analyse??? the impact of their actions. Engaging the enemy runs through most soldiers DNA however, the battlefield of the 21st century requires the ???Agile Warrior??? to be more politically sensitive to social and cultural difference. Through appropriate curriculum development and design this change in behaviour will allow the British Army to continue to be at the vanguard of counterinsurgency (COIN) strategy. The impact at macro level is clear to see however; just as significant is the repercussive felt at micro level. The focus on CLM delivery and the uplift in students requiring language; cultural awareness and COIN provision directly impacts on resources. What was the expected flow of assets at the beginning of term may not necessarily be available half way through the year. With the shift in priority to the ???operational requirement???, classroom re-allocation, staff timetables, cancellations of courses, uplift in cleaner hours and re-evaluation of health and safety policies due to increased through-put all requires consideration and careful negotiation. PCDL provision was not immune to disruption and change, engaging external providers for additional resources, such as classrooms ensured the wider community was not disadvantaged. Operational deployment inevitably effect ???pattern of life??? within the military community, this change has direct impact on design and development of PCDL curriculum. Data suggests a shift towards female audiences and the requirement for vocational and recreational courses increase however; the political decision to draw down BFG has direct impact on tutor availability. One could argue the return of BFG to UK may raise the requirement for more academic courses that provide accreditation aligned to the work of work.
My reflection has brought me to conclude that, the requirement to adapt to an ever-changing world will continue to directly impact the purpose and relevance of curriculum development. The significance of curriculum is argued by Peter Taylor, Institute of Development Studies UK: ???If viewed as a list that may be extended almost indefinitely, the curriculum quickly loses it immensely constructive potential???.
http://unesdoc.unesco.org

Curriculum must remain a positive force in education, it must replicate the reality of the teaching and learning environment, and ultimately it must benefit the learner. Bibliography Armitage et al (3rd Edition 2007) Teaching and Training in Post Compulsory Education Poland 02 Graft S. A Coles A (2004) Teaching in Post-Compulsory Education Policy, Practice and Values London, David Fulton Publishes Curzon L. B (4th Edition 1990) Teaching in Further Education An Outline of Principles and Practice Oxford Alden Press Gagne M. R (1965) The Conditions of Learning USA, Holt, Rinehaut and Winston Gray et al (2000) Training to Teach in Further and Adult Education Spain Graphy Cems Jarvis P (3rd Edition 2004) Adult Education and Life Long Learning Theory and Practice London Routhledger Falmer Kelly A. V (6th Edition 2009) The Curriculum Theory and Practice Somerset MPG Bodis Group Petty G (4th Edition 2009) Teaching Today A Practical Guide Cheltenham Nelson Thornes Ltd Tummons J (2nd Edition 2010) Becoming a Professional Tutor in the Lifelong Learning Sector Glasgow Bell and Bain Ltd Walkin L (1990) Teaching and Learning in Further and Adult Education Cheltenham Stanley Thornes Wilson L (2009) Practical Teaching. A Guide to PTLLS and DTLLS Chine R R Donnelly Journals Bloom??™s Revised Taxonomy Army Education Centre PGCE handout Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education: Inclusive Further Education DTLLS 2011 Command Leadership and Management Formal Training Statement 2011
Curriculum for Diversity Guide NIACE 2007

Curriculum Module: Defining and Understanding Curriculum Models DTLLS Handout 2011

Curriculum Theory and Practice: The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education 2011 Director Education Training Services Army Strategic Direction 2010 Education Training Service Army Personal Community Development Learning Policy 2010 Ensuring Every Learner Matters: Incorporated Colleges DTLLS 2011 Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority: Learning and Skills Network F Coffield 2008 Review of Soldier??™s Career, Education and Training 2007 Review of Vocational Education The Wolf Report DTLLS 2011 The National Curriculum and the role of the primary teachers in curriculum development Gillard D. 1988 The Strategic Corporal: Some Requirement in Training and Education, Australian Army Journal Major L Liddy 2010 Websites www.excellencegateway.org 16 Nov 11 www.multiage-education.com 21 Nov 11 www.qualityresearchinternational.com 30 Sep 11 www.ufed.org 27 Sep 11 http://unesdoc.unesco.org 21 Nov 11