D315 Tma01

What can we, the public, learn about crime by critically considering the official statistics in the British Crime Survey and Police Recorded Crime

To begin with I will explain what both lots of information provides us with. Firstly the British Crime Survey is a study which is undertaken on behalf of the Home Office. The survey is given out to people aged 16 and over and whom live in England and Wales. About 50,000 people are asked about crimes they have experienced over the previous year.

The British Crime survey is conducted to mop up some of those crimes which have been experienced by people but which may have not been reported to the police. The public sometimes do not report crimes as they feel that the police may not do anything about what has happened, or would be unable to do something about it. It also gathers information on peoples feelings towards crimes.

The Police Recorded Crime is exactly that; those crimes which have been experienced and then reported to and recorded by the police. However, this works out to be only about 50% of actually experienced crimes. There is a shortfall in the amount of crimes reported to the police which are then recorded as such. The reason for this is that sometimes certain incidents are reported to the police but are not viewed by them to be serious enough to be followed up as a criminal offence (for example neighbour dispute) this is then not recorded as a crime.

The two sources are used together so as to try and give a more true and in depth look into the crimes that have been experienced by the public as a whole. This will still not be an exact log as only 50,000 people are surveyed and only about 80% reply, so not everyone who has not reported a crime to the police will be picked up in the British Crime Survey. However it can confirm that increases and decreases in certain crimes are definitely taking place.

With regards to the information contained in the two sets of information we also need to consider what information is missing from these. To be able to critically look at the information we need to consider that we are not looking at the full picture..

Within the records provided by the Police, certain policing departments like the British Transport Police, Ministry of Defence Police, etc are not contained within these figures. These departments have recorded about 80,000 offences per year (Maguire, 1997, p.149) We then have certain other offences like tax evasion which would only be included in figures if the cases are taken to court. This certainly skews the figures that come through for the police records.

Within the surveyed information provided by the British Crime Survey we have issues with certain crimes also not being covered. Victimless crimes like drug taking will not be covered and also crimes that affect businesses like fraud will not be included as the surveys are undertaken by individuals. Also those people who are affected by crime but do not have a fixed abode, homeless people who are living on the streets for example. The figures received from those completing the surveys can be further skewed by where people live if they are in higher crime areas or in extremely low crime areas. And then how many people return the surveys from these particular areas.

Not only this but the ???British??? crime survey actually only covers England and Wales so to look at the complete picture for Britain we need to look at similar surveys which cover Northern Ireland and Scotland.
The British Crime Survey also asks about peoples feelings on crime. Certain fears of crime can be exacerbated depending on the age and or gender of those completing the survey Also what they may have recently been made aware of i.e. their neighbour was burgled.

As the public we need to look at both of the statistics supplied by these two sources. The government uses the information to gauge how well they are doing on their crime prevention work and what area they need to concentrate on next. The media use the same information to scaremonger so as to provide a shock to the nation, for them to sell more newspapers or more viewers for programmes. This could be to tell us that murders are up or violent crime is on the increase. So why are there two different sides to the same supplied information Well that is to do with the types of questions that are being asked and which side is supplying the answers! The course literature gives a very good example of this by saying that the same information of 250 burglaries per 10,000 can be conveyed as; there is a burglary every minute throughout the country, or every one person in 40 is at risk of burglary, or you are at risk of burglary once in every 40 years.

The crimes themselves are categorised in to quite general groups for those recorded by the police;

??? Burglary
??? Other property offences
??? Violent crime
??? Other theft
??? Vehicle crime
??? Other offences

If we look at the information recorded by the police in England and Wales in 1997 (Source: Home Offic, 1999, p.4.) It details that the above are given the following percentages; Burglary 23%, Other property offences 20%, violent crime 8%, Other theft 23%, vehicle crime 25% and other offences 1%. From this information we can say that crime against property is 91%. The actual crime we are fearful of which is crime directly against ourselves, mugging, rape, murder, etc is minimal at only 8%. Even if we reduce the crime rate by the percentage of burglary as some victims find this a direct attack at them this still sways toward the non direct crime being more common.

Within the British Crime Survey for the same year we have the following details;

??? Burglary at 10%
??? Other thefts 31%
??? Violent crime 20%
??? Vehicle crime 31%
??? Other vandalism 8%

So even when we take the details from the survey then we find that violent crime although it has more than doubled to 20% it is still comparitively low towards common crimes. If we again add the burglary to the violent crime due to some peoples feelings this then levels the amount out to the 30% mark. However this would not include murder.

If we look at both of these sources of information then we can see that the crime statistics collected by both sources have quite a difference. The BCS does have issues with sampling error, therefore if a survey is returned from a high crime area, then when this is calculated to be an average across the country we will have a higher rate than the actual recorded crimes could ever be even if all were recorded. The police recorded crimes can show us a better picture per county as they have the direct results of crimes reported to each police force.

Neither of these sources will ever give a complete picture of all crimes that have taken place in the country, as I have discussed certain crimes are omitted from either one or the other sets of information. Also those crimes that could be picked up in the BCS may still not be admitted to as the party would not want to view themselves as a victim, these crimes then remain hidden.

Some crimes are not perceived by some to be so. Taking stationery from the cupboard at work for home use, or making private phone calls using the work telephone are not viewed by some to be crimes. However these are classed as theft and can bring about fines or dismissal from work. Also some workers may not see themselves as a victim of crime through work when their health and safety rights have not been upheld.

Rises in crime may not be because more crime has been committed but instead because more people have decided to report the crime. It could be because more man power has been given to the police to deal with crimes and therefore their recorded crime rates will have increased.

We may have a fear of certain crimes for certain reasons, these fears can make us feel that we will be more susceptible to certain offences. Reading the newspapers can make us feel that we need to be wary of every foreign man wearing a backpack. Or that from watching certain programmes that going to quiet villages will most certainly put us at more risk of being murdered. Although these are not a common fear for some many peoples fears are based on the types of books we read and programmes we watch. Even when we are told that we are at a low risk of being a victim this still does not alleviate our fears.

Steven Box asks us to look at what people we should be fearful of (Box, 2007, p.272) He explains that we have been told to look at those people who have been convicted and imprisoned for their crimes. This shows us though that certain sections of society are over represented in jails but this does not mean necessarily that they commit more crime just certain types of crime. He also discusses what acts are covered by criminal law so that criminal assault is only assault if someone has decided it to be so. Therefore many more events which we may have been involved in may affect us in a detrimental way, but are not seen to be criminal and therefore no crime has been committed. When this is the case would we report this incident to the police or even recognise it as an issue that we would bring up in a survey. The answer is probably not.

The information provided within these statistics cannot be used to be a definitive report on who commits what and to whom as there are too many variables to include everything. Also with many crimes being hidden from both public attention and that of the police there is no way to get a complete picture. To top that with many incidents not being considered a crime, no-one can fully see what threat of crime they are truely under.

So to answer the question of what we can learn from the official statistics. There are many things to learn from this information we are provided with. It is for us to view the data that is provided by both the BCS and Police recorded crime and take it on only as a national average. We can see from the figures what common crimes are increasing or decreasing nationally.

However for us to know what threats of crime we personally are under; we need to look instead to our local experience of crimes and then for for us to make our own minds up on the amount of crime that is prevalent in our society. Instead of taking by face value the information given to us by the government or media. If we look towards these localised crimes and prepare ourselves for these (for example if we have a lot of burglaries make sure we have extra locks).

We could become less fearful of certain crimes (i.e. Murder), when we realise that our risk of becoming a victim of these are far less than we are led to believe. This can be confirmed not only by the local information on crime but also from the BCS and Police Recorded crime.

(Words: 1902)

Bibliography
1. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 2nd Edition, Oxford, Clarendon
2. The Problem of Crime, 1996, Open University, Muncie, McLaughlin
3. Criminological Perspectives, 2nd Edition, McLaughlin, Muncie & Hughes (Reader Article 23)
4. www.homeoffice.gov.uk

.D2 Justify Ways of Overcoming the Difficulties That May Arise When Implementing Anti-Discriminatory Practice in Health

D2: Justify Ways Of Overcoming The Difficulties That May Arise When Implementing Anti-Discriminatory Practice In Health
And Social Care Settings.

Promoting Equality
Anti-discriminatory practice is promoted by treating all the children fairly, regardless of their race, gender, religion or way of living. It is important that children are not treated the same, but they are treated with dignity and respect. For example in a nursery, if you had one child who can feed themselves you would give them their lunch and they could carry on and eat themselves. But if another child could not feed themselves then you would help them to eat their lunch. So you are treating these two people differently, but giving them both the opportunity to have lunch. Also, if somebody else was vegetarian, then you would provide them with a vegetarian lunch. So you are treating them differently too, but giving them the same opportunity. But its also giving them respect and dignity. It would be disrespectful, bad practice and discriminatory to put a lunch in front of somebody who couldnt feed themselves and just leave them like that, and same for giving a vegetarian a lunch that contained meat.

One problem that can occur when treating the children equally is that if a child needs special attention, then by including that child, and helping them, it is then excluding the other children, and they may not get the attention they might need. This can be overcome by all members of staff being diverse in their actions and making sure that every child is treated as an individual. This is from the Every Child Matters Guidelines. Another problem that could happen in a care home is if a resident is not very friendly, and a staff member do not get along with them, so they do not help them as much as they do the other residents. This is a way that promoting equality can be difficult, but to ensure that it is, the staff need to be trained to deal with stressful purposes, even when a resident is being awkward, as the residents have equal rights and opportunities.

Challenging discrimination shows that, people are not discriminating against those whose behaviour, views and attitudes are discriminatory. Challenging discrimination can be overcome by challenging the attitude, view or behaviour, of the individuals as well as training and encouragement training should be of a good standard and staff encouraged and praised in order to promote good team morale which would also promote better practice and reduce discrimination. More to that it is important for care workers to be respectful and assertive when challenging someone as well as being open-minded and not make assumptions. Staff should attend regular staff training sessions and have team meetings between them and the management and also help to challenge discriminatory practices by being aware of the individual needs as well as those of service users. This can be done by promoting autonomy of care, being flexible, keeping service users informed and by putting the service user at the centre of focus.

Catering For Individual Dietary Needs
Another way of promoting anti-discriminatory practice is by catering for individual dietary needs. Nurseries provide snacks and a cooked lunch for all the children, but there might be children who have allergies, and may not be able to eat certain foods. There might also be children who cannot eat certain foods due to their religion. The Nursery has to promote healthy eating but they will have to take into consideration the religious needs of providing meat dishes for protein or for children who are vegetarian. They will have to look at other foods that will provide each child with a full balanced diet. Nurseries are now required to provide every member of staff with a full inventory of any child and their special dietary needs.

One problem that can occur with this is that it can become very difficult cooking several different meals to cater for all the children with their different dietary needs. It can also become very costly having to buy different foods, and there can be a lot of wastage. To overcome this the nursery could cook foods, for example using quorn instead of meat, and give all the children this food to overcome the costing and wastage. The children will still be getting their source of protein, but several different meals will not have to be made. Also on some days, they could have vegetarian meals that don??™t contain meat at all, as this would also cater for religious dietary requirement also.

Promoting Independence and Opportunity
It is also important that each child has equal opportunities. For example giving them all the chance to participate in all activities, trips, stories, role play etc. This means that when an activity is set up, the children have the choice to participate or not. It would be bad practice if you allowed certain children to join in, and not others, and not allowing the children to make their own choice about it. The children Act, says that children are paramount, the most important thing, and the nursery does not allow certain children to have the choice whether to join in or not, then they are going against this and are discriminating that child. The children are encouraged to play together with their friends, and are taught that everyone is their friend there at the nursery and you should include them when playing, but what they decide to play with is their choice.

One difficultly that can occur is too many children wanting to participate in a small activity, but this is easily overcome by having smaller groups and doing the activity several times to ensure that none of the children are excluded and feel that their opportunity and independence has been taken away. All activities should be non-stereotypical so that the children have an equal opportunity to play and each activity is fully inclusive regardless of their gender. An example of this is if a boy wanted to dress up in a fairy outfit, then this should be encouraged within the setting, as this ensures no prejudice. The problem could be that the parents need to be encouraged to not bring their prejudices into the group.

Celebrating Religious Festivals
It is important that a nursery provides different experiences for different religious festivals. This enables each child to participate and experience different cultures and their celebrations. Each experience should be in a fun and child-friendly way. Whilst they may not have in-depth information, the nursery can provide experiences of cultural harmony. They could by celebrating Chinese New Year by the children helping to make a dragon display and tasting various Chinese foods. Aswell as celebrating these festivals, it is important that the children experience different cultures and how other people in the world live, what they eat and the differences between us. This is promoted by reading stories from other cultures, making displays and tasting foods from different countries. There are always books from other cultures for the children to read if they choose to.

One problem that can occur is if there is a child of a different religion, they will never feel fully a part of any of their own celebrations and they would not be able to share their knowledge or their parent??™s knowledge with others. This can be overcome by asking parents their religion on the registration form and asking if any parents would like to share with the children information about their celebration. The playschool could also celebrate all the different festivals and celebrations, to ensure that all children feel included in their religious celebrations, and also the other children have the chance to learn about the different festivals and enjoy the different celebrations and the differences within them all.

Confidentiality
Information about the children should always be kept confidential and only the parents and certain members of staff of the said child should be able to access the information. Any personal information relating to the family, their needs or difficulties should be kept in a locked and secure place that cannot be accessed by others. It is important that the information is kept confidential because the nature of things like child protection plans and other professionals who may be working with the family may cause the family to withdraw their child from the setting. Confidentiality is one of the main policies as laid down by OFSTED and must be stuck to at all times.

All information about the individual should be kept confidential and also certain people should be able to access that information, on a need to know basis. If the family of a child at the nursery have issues where social services are involved, and this information became public, it could cause distress to the family and the child may be treated differently. This can be overcome by the manager of the setting and they keyworker of the child being the only ones to access that information within the setting. You could limit the access and stop the gossip by keeping records in a secure place – do not leave them lying around in publicly accessible areas, for example a locked draw, or cabinet where only the people allowed to see it, can access it. Any information that is confidential should never be accessed by anyone who is not allowed to view it, and if staff go against this then disciplinary procedures should take place. Confidential information should also not be talked about within the building, for example if a child was abused and is now being fostered, then this should not be talked about between the staff. Only the people who should directly know this information should know about it and keep it to themselves, to avoid staff treating that child differently to the other children, and not being equal with the children. In a hospital situation is it important that the doctors do not use information contained in the medical records for purposes other than patient care unless consent has been obtained or the data anonymised.

Training
There are numerous government training schemes available to all members of staff where they can access a full or part bursary to enhance their knowledge of how to deal with anti-discriminatory practice. The training courses are there for any member of staff to access and are normally through a local college. It is important that the staff are fully trained and know how to deal with anti-discriminatory practice, as there be a case in the workplace that they may have to deal with, and they would need to know how to deal with it appropriately.

One problem that can occur is that a child of a different culture may have had a medical process, for example circumcision on Jewish boys. The parents may not wish for this to be discussed or the fact made known around the nursery, so it is important that the staff know how to deal with these situations, to avoid any discrimination against that child. Also first aid training is vital when working with young children. Without this training staff would not know what to do if an accident happened, and could put the children in more danger than they need to be. Another difficulty that could arise is if new staff come in and do not know how to treat people equally or struggle to then they may be covertly discriminating against certain service users. To overcome this they could have equality and diversity training, to ensure that they do understand that it??™s important that everyone has equal rights and opportunities and that the staff are more confident when dealing with different service users.

Funding
As the funds for settings is limited, they can promote themselves in the community by holding fundraising events such as a summer fayre, and the community know that any profits are going back into the setting for the welfare and education of the children. This exercise not only raises funds, but is a good way of letting the community know how inclusive the setting is. This is part of community co-hesion and encourages the parents, their children, their families and staff to show how by working together, they are being anti-discriminatory. One problem that could happen is that you do not have enough people to hold the event. To avoid this, notices can be given out, for example to parents at a nursery, and to family members at a care home, asking for their help to run a fundraising event, and to tell their friends and families to attend if they wish to, to get the maximum people to attend and help out. They could also make the event accessible and appealing to all ages, so that any age can come along.

D121 Tma03

Question Part (a)
Summarise what the information in Table 1 tells us about (a) how the water quality of estuaries in the United Kingdom has changed from 1980 to 2005; and (b) how the water quality of estuaries varies across the constituent parts of the UK.
a)
In England and Wales the amount the water area of river estuary classed as ???Good??™ has risen from 1,870km? in 1980 to 2,038km? in 2005. This represents a rise in the percentage of rivers classed as ???Good??™ from 68% in 1980 to 73% in 2005. The total area of estuaries classed as ???Fair??™ has fallen slightly from 620km? in 1980 to 605km? in 2005 and the total percentage of estuaries classed as ???Fair from 23% to 22%. The area of estuaries classed as ???Poor??™ has also fallen from 140km? in 1985 to 83km? in 2005. This represents a drop in percentage of estuaries classed as ???Poor??™ from 5% to 3%. The area of estuaries classed as ???Bad??™ falls from 110km? in 1980 to 48km? in 2005 with the total percentage dropping from 4% to 2% accordingly.
In Scotland records start from 1995. The area of estuaries classed as ???Good??™ rises from 619km? to 692km? and this represents a rise in the total percentage of estuaries classed as ???Good??™ from 77% to 86%. The area of estuaries classed as ???Fair??™ falls from 153km? in 1995 to 95km? in 2005 and this represents a fall in total area from 19% to 12% respectively. The area of estuaries classed as ???Poor??™ also falls from 28km? in 1995 to 22km? in 2005 however the total percentage of estuaries classed poor remains at 3% from 1995 to 2005. Estuaries classed as ???Bad??™ drop from 9km? in 1995, a 1% total, to zero.
In Northern Ireland records are only given for the years 1985 and 1993 and estuaries are classed as ???Good??™ or ???Poor??™. The area of estuaries classed as ???Good??™ rises from 100km? in 1985 to 140km? in 1993, this represents a rise from 83% to 88% of the total area. The area of estuaries classed as ???Poor??™ remains at 20km? from 1985 to 1993, this represents a fall from 17% to 12% of the total area.
b)
In comparing the quality of the estuaries between England & Wales and Scotland in 1995 we can see a that Scotland has a higher percentage of ???Good??™ estuaries while England have a higher percentage of estuaries classed ???Fair??™, ??™Poor??™ and ???Bad??™. Scotland also have a higher percentage of estuaries classed as ???Good??™ in the years 2000 and 2005 too. England & Wales also have consistently higher percentages of estuaries classed ???Fair??™ and ???Bad??™ suggesting that the quality of estuaries in Scotland is consistently higher than England and Wales.
We can only compare the figures of Northern Ireland with England and Wales from 1985 and only from the classifications. These figures show the Northern Ireland has a much larger percentage of estuaries classed as ???Good??™, 83% to England and Wales??™s 69%. This suggest Northern Ireland to have a better quality of water.
Scotland and Northern Ireland cannot be compared directly.
In all countries the level of estuaries classed ???Good??™ has risen from 1980-2005 and similarly the estuaries classed ???Bad??™ has dropped in all countries in the same amount of time.

Word Count = 502

Question Part (b)
In what ways may air pollution in Beijing be related to the operation of the market economy What possible solution might there be to this problem

The Chinese economy is defined by markets, an economic system where buyers and sellers (economic agents) are free to trade with which ever individual or group they feel benefits them. Within these markets the economic agents all operate within their own interests. This market structure is known as a neo-classical model. A producers and seller of commodities keen to generate the largest profit buy being as efficient in producing a commodity as possible and selling it on at the largest profit, while buyers pay as little for a product as they feel they can depending on the value they place on a commodity. Although market forces keep sellers efficient through competition and buyers not overpaying for a product they do not value highly. This known as a price mechanism and due to this a market economy can have a detrimental effect on the environment that can have far reaching consequence, naturally and sociologically.
This price mechanism means that an economic agent??™s main considerations are their own private costs and benefits over the costs and benefits of society. As producing a commodity in a way that does not harm the environment raises the costs of production and therefore makes a firm less competitive in the market, firms will fail to make a commitment to environmentally friendly production. The rules of the market place dictate the a firm must be as competitive as possible, so while firms have the freedom to produce commodities however they please, they feel as if they have no choice but to cut costs wherever possible, whatever the sociological damage it will not outweigh the private costs.
In the article from the Guardian newspaper ???Satellite data reveals Beijing as air pollution capital of the world??™ it is suggested that:-
???the city is one of the worst environmental victims of China??™s spectacular economic growth,??™
This stresses a link direct link between rising consumption in China and air pollution in Beijing. The negative affects of which on the population are also stated in the article, the Chinese Academy on Environmental Planning ???blamed air pollution for 411,000 premature deaths (Guardian, Monday October 2005).??™ This is a good example a negative externality where Chinese industry is not taking into account the social costs of the pollution it is causing as it does not directly harm, and may well benefit, the company financially to ignore the issue of air pollution. Market forces mean that they would be unlikely to do so without pressure from other social influence which we will look at later in the essay.
The article also states that in Beijing an,-
???explosive increase in car ownership is blamed for a sharp rise in unhealthy emissions.??™
This demonstrates that it is not just produce of commodities that are responsible for increasing emissions. Each individual in Beijing allows for damage to environment by buying from companies that can produce their product more efficiently and therefore cheaply, rather than paying extra for the overheads involved in environmentally friendly production. Also in their increase use of automobiles instead of attempting to find greener modes of transport they are causing pollution of the air by putting their private costs and benefits above those of society.
With a market economy appealing to the economic agents involved to consider the environment in their activities is considered a lost cause as producers are in constant competition with other companies and sellers are more likely to be a product in terms of its value than its effect on the environment. This means that the price mechanism found in the neo- classical modelled structure of the market leaves agents little choice than to accept its effects on the environment. What other answers are there in protecting the environment.
The article makes reference to a particular externality caused by the air pollution in the shape of acid rain polluting rivers and making them undrinkable. One solution that could be attempted to try and stop pollution to the river would be to introduce a green tax to companies that are responsible for pollution. This would either force companies to offset the negative externalities of their activities or make them consider the environmental effects of how they operate due to higher costs. Subsidies could also be offered to companies that lower pollution levels. This would not be straightforward however as it would be it would be difficult to decide exactly who should be charged. Should all factories be targeted by the taxes, or just the ones directly responsible for the air pollution that polluted the river Another question would be what the level of cost should be To calculate actual financial costs to an organisation affected by pollution is one thing but what about costs that cannot be measured and affect all of society and futures generations, such as damaging an area of natural beauty This could also force polluters into poorer areas where individuals have less power in the market and therefore less say in their environment.
Another solution would be to work within the market model and to assign property rights to the river, the idea being that if the river became a commodity it could be protected if people value it. The problem with this solution is that is more likely to favour the rich in the long run as they are much more likely to afford the purchase of these property rights. Even if all economic agents they had a right to the property were given rights, the poorer of those individuals are more likely to sell their rights to the rich in the long run when in need of financial capital. Another issue would be that just because an individual gain rights to a commodity does not mean they value it. It could be more in their interest financially to allow the pollution if, for example, they were subsidies for doing so.
In conclusion, the pollution mentioned in the guardian article the plagues Beijing can be shown as a direct negative externality of need for companies operating within the market model to be competitive. The suggestions on how to combat these externalities that come from the market system itself have many problems, both politically and social, to be considered perfect solutions. It has been suggested that the answer lies outside the structure of the neo-classical market model. Perhaps if we lived in a system designed less around our own needs and more on the effects our actions have, we could eliminate environmental degradation.
Word Count: 1,075

References:-
Watts, J. (2005) ???Satellite data reveal Beijing as air pollution capital of the world??™, The Guardian, Monday October 31 2005.
Hincliffe, S. Woodward, K. (2004) ???The Natural & the Social: Uncertainty, Risk & Change??™, Open University.

D1011 Tma4

TMA 4

Compare and contrast the approaches of Cohen and Hall et al. to the role of the media in relation to social disorder.

How do we define social order Philosopher Charles Taylor (2004, P58) ???the human capacity to imagine order is at the foundation of society itself??™. Social order is how we all live, work, and socially interact with one another in day to day live within society. We all live within our own patterns or routines (Goffman 1959, 1971 and 1972) If it??™s our daily job or the routes we follow when commuting we all follow some kind of pattern in the way we live which gives all our own kind of social order. Then we have the stranger interaction, how we respond to a smile or gesture someone gives us or the opening of a door for someone there is always a socially acceptable response that??™s expected to keep the social order within society. There are also the social authorities around us that great the broader social order in our lives. The government creates and passes the laws that we all live by, then we have the police who have to enforce the laws so we can live a socially ordered life, there is all so parents and teachers who give the younger generation the social values that we are all expected to live within. It??™s the idea that social order is shaped by social determinations and how we live and interact is moulded by people other than ourselves (Faucoutt 1972,1977,1978).

Having social order gives us definitions on how we live out our lives but then we need to give a definition to social disorders and the way it can be created and how we look at it as individually and as a whole. Social disorders created when we go against what is acceptable, what is created around us by collective groupes to make social order. An example relating to disorder was the Dangerous Dogs Act of 1991 (Lodge and Hood, 2002). The law was created after several incidents of severe dog attacks, and the media attention that was created by them causing mass public support which in turn triggered the government into creating a law that placed major restrictions of four breed being owned. This though has not come without argument with owners often claimed their dogs are ???harmless pet??™ and are mix breed which escape this law. This is a good example of how to create a socially excepted law protect people in society, but it also shows how there are those within society still trying to create social disorder by finding a ???loophole??™ in this case. We all need to think of social disorder or ???anti-social behaviour??™, ???asbos??™ the name the media labels it as in a wider sense to really understand it and look behind the label it is given. Young people underage drinking or smoking a cigarette, smoking cannabis, taking part in rallies/protests are all things we may have taken part in sometime in our lives does this make us all socially disordered. It is believed by some social scientist??™s that ???in our lives we may drift in and out of social acceptable behaviour??™ (Matza, 1964). Mainly if we are not a caught doing something classed as socially disordered then to us as individuals it is acceptable. The government within the country is how the laws we live by are created and passed even having its own media outlet in the form of a web site which states anti-social behaviour as being ??? selfish and unacceptable activity that can blight the quality of community life??™ (Respect, 2008). The page even gives the legal definitions of Crime and Disorder Act 1998 ???a manner that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same household??™. But can there ever be a universal definition or what is ???right??™ or ???wrong??™ because of the varied opinions we all form especially when you can have strong media perceptions which can form our opinions for us.

When looking at the media in relation to social disorder there is two contrasting views given when looking at the studies of Stanley Cohen and his media perception of ??? moral panic??™ and that of Stuart Hall and the ???sense of crisis??™ he see the media gives us.

Stanley Cohen looked in to the media and their way of constructing things such as the ???folk devil??™ (Cohen 1973) (folk devil; people who are portrayed as deviant and that are to blame for crimes and social issues). Stanley Cohen would often argue that media headlines such as ???thugs??™, ???Alco yobs??™ gave the created ???folk devils??™ a cause for people with in society a reason to create a moral panic. The moral panic is caused by the representation of the ???folk devils??™ played out through the media with the use of descriptions of individuals without looking at circumstances surrounding an group, event or individual and finding the reason for the social behaviour being portrayed. This was shown when Stanley Cohen developed the idea of ???mods??™ and ???rockers??™ who fought in the seaside towns in the mid-60s and how the medias descriptive words created social panic without looking at the cause of behaviour. Cohen has a clear view of the media and there use of headlines and portrayal of stories causes the major fears of anti-social behaviour and so creating the ???folk devils??™ instead of looking into the cause and effects of social behaviour so creating Cohen??™s ???Moral Panic??™.

The other view on the role of the media in relation to social disorder is given by the cultural studies scholar Stuart Hall and his co-authors (Policing the Crisis (1978)). There studies relate to the rise in street robberies or ??™muggings??™ which occurred in the early 1970s, Hall et al. focus on the violent disorder occurring with in society at the time and how the media through there reporting constructed conflict among others. Hall et al. argued that the British governments role in society seem by them as being the main constant that brought stability was coming to an end in the early 11970s.This presented itself with social disorder occurring ranging from work forces staging strike action to the political unrest and military intervention within Northern Ireland, all emerging so people could express their own opinions and view point over the way the government was ruling. In reaction to the way the government of the time handled the social disorder and their ???cracking down??™ that occurred the media added ???fuel to a fire??™ by giving popular labels to the circumstances arising such as ???muggers??™,??™rioters??™,??™yobs??™. After this the political, moral and legal situations became defined by Hall et al. as ???mindless violence??™ and so creating there idea of a ???Law and order society??™.

Cohan and Hall et al. both agree that street violence and the way it exists in society and how the medias portrayal can cause publics reactions and ???sway??™ opinions. The media gives society their perception of social unrest giving the public validation in their reactions. Cohan and Hall et al. both argue that in the media doing this in the early 1970s they gave the government justification on tougher crime polices and sentencing, showing that the media had the strongest power in relation to social disorder during that period of time.

Word count. 1230.

References

Kelly,B and Toynbee,J. (2009) ???Making disorder on the streets??™ in Taylor,S. Hinchliffe,S.,Clarke,J. and Bromley, S. Making Social Lives, Open University, Milton Keynes.

Silva,E B. (2009) ???Making Social Order??™ in Taylor S, Hinchliffe S, Clarke J and Bromley S Making Social Lives, Open University, Milton Keynes

Charles Taylor, (2004, p58)

Howard Becker (1963)

Goffmans interactions order,P316/317, 2.1 Cited in Silva

Faucault 1972,1977,1978 P320 Cited in Silva

(Respect 2008) Cited in Kelly and Toynbee

Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Stanley Cohen 1973 cited in Kelly and Toynbee

Stuart Hall et al. policing the crisis (1978) cited in Kelly and Toynbee

Self-Reflection

I feel more confident with the way I write things down and am finding it easier to express my thoughts into words. I still need to improve the referencing as find it hard to see what is required at times.

D Day

The effects of terrorism and war on the global economy.
Does terrorism effect the global economy How
Yes terrorism does effect the global economy. Terrorism is a real threat to all nations around the world. There is not one place on this planet where there are people that agree 100% of the time, there are always going to be conflicting ideas. Some of differences in beliefs, like religion, are going to lead radicals to turn to terrorism to push there opinions across to other people with different beliefs, and some times these radicals will turn to lethal measures to get that point across. This choice of how to deal with opinions of other people is widely frowned upon, But is still present in todays world and is a to real danger to ignore. The human tragedies that result from terrorism are very horrific and the economic strains that follow these attacks can be devastating.
Fear, terrorism can bring an economy to its lowest of low levels because of fear. People that run businesses may be afraid to continue operating at a normal rate, because they fear that they could become a target for an attack. For example People that used to fly frequently may have stopped because of the fear that they could become the next 9/11. The airlines also had to spend billions of dollars to get more advanced security systems so nobody could sneak anything the weren??™t supposed to have on the plane.
Human loss, the loss of a life is the worst part of terrorism. The effects of a death of someone you knew or were close to is tremendous. The business world does not go unaffected by the loss of a human, these companies lose labor force and sometimes key players in the company. During the September eleventh plane attacks the lives of thousands were lost including top level executives from morgan Stanley, Merrill Lynch, American Express, BP, and more. These companies lost there highest ranked officials, there best thinkings, and leaders. The effect on a company could result in having to shut down or firing some more employees because they cant afford to pay them their salarys. The result was a major tragedy for the victims, the victims family, and the large companies. Terrorism plays a huge part in our global economy.
Terrorism has added a lot of volatility to the market. Like everytime there is a crisis in the middle east the price of oil skyrockets. This is because a war in that region would result in a disruption in the exports of oil. So if the price of oil randomly gets higher there may have been a big or small crisis in the middle east. Also the attacks of September eleventh put the American economy into a major recession, or spiral downwards. Whenever there is a lot of uncertainty which terrorism does easily it creates a lot of risky choices, which has MANY negative effects on the economy like less investment, less spending, and less risk taking.
So in conclusion, if we could stop terrorism or make it at least a smaller factor in the big scheme of things the American and global economy would be a lot better off. Terrorism is a pressing issue but were going to keep fighting it until we have more control.

Czech Nationalism

CZECHOSLOVAKIAN EXPERIENCE OF NATIONAL IDENTITY

The end of Cold War brought into World agenda two political events: first, drastic changes at national frontiers in Eastern Europe and Central Asia including the creation of new states, and secondly the replacement of official ideologies with more liberal capitalist ones, leading to a transformation in reallocation and ownership of economic resources, in a reversal Marxist way where this time superstructure shapes the infrastructure. The first issue was the abolishment of a Post World War I heritage (Versailles Treaty and the end of Habsburg Empire) and the second one was making extinct Yalta??™s ???Spheres of Influence??™ agreement. On the other hand there are counter arguments about Yalta??™s historical importance as Leff pointed out depending on an argument made by a British diplomat: ???The suggestion that East Europe was carved up at is an illusion; it was carved up by the advance of Soviet armies into East Europe???. Among these events it is not very hard to differentiate newer approaches to political, social and cultural aspects of life, such as the rise of nationalism, reliogion, consuming behavior, changes social status, etc. Though it is not specific to the Second World, ethnic nationalism among Eastern European countries and former Soviet Republics is one of the most prominent feature of this era along with the restructuring market economy. It is not a coincidence that newly formed states are based on ethnic differentiation and the rise of nationalism on political and social arenas of those post-communist states. The intellectual and ideological void created by the disappearance of the official socialist ideology paved way to the emerging ethnic nationalism, suppressed for decades. According to Cviic, however, the communists had shown a strong nationalistic character during the resistance years, at World War. This essay will be focused on the development and destruction of Czechoslovak national identity, pursuing a historical approach. That destruction signifies also the end of all non-ethnic nationalities in the Second and Third World (Interestingly, First World seems immune to such changes) with the globalization.

Historical Evolution of Czechoslovakian Nationalism
The First Republic
The First World War brought an end to the multinationalistic empires of Central and Eastern Europe. Though not allied with the Axis Russia provided land and population for the birth of five states: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (half of the latter??™s territory came from Germany). From the multinational Habsburg Empire hatched the Yugoslav kingdom (a multiethnic entity itself), Czechoslovakia (unification of two nation states with considerable minority populations of German and Hungarian origin), Hungary, and Austria. As Leff points out ???The new countries remained multinational ??“ large numbers of minorities were trapped in the ???wrong??™ state, with Poles or Germans or Hungarians separated from ethnic kin next door serving as a standing invitation to external intervention???. However these ???trapped??™ ethnic formations did not present themselves as a problem unless the continental stability is endangered by powers outside the boundaries, a situation quite controversial to the one after 1990s.
Historically Bohemia had a bi-cultural nature, Czech and Slovak ones. Although after 1919 there was a resentment against the idea of a two-nation state the Peace Treaties signed after the First World War urged Czechs to live in a country of which the boundaries were drawn according to criteria different than the ethnic boundaries. The postwar settlement of Versailles was generous to the newborn state of Czechoslovakia: it retained German Sudeten regions, the disputed Silesian territories with their Polish population, and a large Hungarian minority in Slovakia. The Czech side, the more advanced one, was embracing more the concept of one Czechoslovak nation. Unable to develop a unifying literary language (Extreme Slovak nationalists, and to some degreethe Marxists today, recognize a distinct Slovak language and literature in Great Moravia itself ) the Slovak side was hesitant fearing that such a unification would result in giving up their identity. Facts of lesser industrialization rate and constituting only 15% of the Czechoslovak population provided sound bases for Slovak hesitation. On the other hand tense relationship with Hungary urged some of the Slovaks to seek a tighter link with the Czech side. At October 30th, 1918, Slovak side declared they were pro for a Czechoslovakian state. In October 1929, Slovak autonomists were out the government for good.
First two decades will be remembered with the dissatisfaction of everyone, with the exception of Czechs, from a unitary state of two nations and different minority groups. With the economically settling Slovak side the urges for more autonomy put under pressure the politicians who were pro for a centralized system. According Leff, a more flexible political system might accommodate Slovak complaints but the complex and easily deadlocked system postponed a mutually satisfactory resolution. Instead of institutional adjustments hopes were laid in education and in the development of Czechoslovakian identity. Interestingly Czech nationalism was never considered apart from the Czechoslovakian paradigm. Even in 1991 according to a survey 31% of Czechs denied the existence of a Czech national character.
The State??™s efforts to integrate minorities into the system were fruitful and in an era where nearly all the states in Eastern Europe created in the aftermath of World War I adapted some form of authoritarian government Czechoslovakia continued with his functioning parliamentary system. However proportional representation and strong divisions among different ethnic communities transformed the system to a rather clumsy one and the average government life was around a year. Crowded coalitions resulted in rigidity and inflexibility. The realities of international politics put an end to the peaceful coexistence of two nations for a period of six years, Czechoslovakia ceased to exist literally.
Czechoslovakia Under Communism
After the Second World War II, Czechoslovakia had found itself in a radically different situation. First of all the composition of the population had been changed. Czechs and Slovaks??™ ratio rose from 65% of 1920s to 90%, bringing a demographical homogeneity. But the existence of two nations still dominated local political agenda. The communist regime, established after 1948, failed to solve the ???Slovak identity problem??™. Unlike pre-War era, the attempts to put an end to the Slovaks complaints existed, based on the idea that economic development would exterminate any differentiation between the two communities. Contrary to the expectations it fueled the national self. The industrialization of Slovakia, a movement which according to the Communist ideology would bring the two parts of the state together, became one of the main drives of the Slovak nationhood.
The political arrangements had their own contributions to the problem. When the Slovaks had their National Council and the Czechs had not, both sides felt that the other community was enjoying some privilege they did not. For the Czechs Slovaks had their own institutions and were enjoying a privileged status. On the Slovak side the Czechs were considering the government as their own and creating some preservation devices for the Slovaks. In order to get rid of the asymmetry created the Communist Party adopted a program to turn Czechoslovakia into a federation. The year 1969 had marked the date Czechoslovakia became a federal republic. Soviet Union supported that decision in the light of the ???divide and conquer??? motto, thinking that controlling the country while dealing with the both parts would be easier. That caused a resentment among the Czechs about the Slovaks had a benefit from the general tragedy of Soviet invasion. Furthermore the image of Slovaks having a disproportionate power in the new system had its place in the Czech communal memory. On the other hand Slovaks never got satisfied with the federation. The Communist Party, never federated, preserved its supra nature, leaving nearly no room for local governments to gain autonomy. Leff underlines this disillusionment: ???No wonder then, that after the Velvet Revolution, the new political leaders launched a quest for an ???authentic federation??? to heal old wounds and establish a new basis for national cooperation???.
The Velvet Revolution of 1989
The epoch following the pro-Soviet communists established their firm grip on the Czechoslovak state and society is characterized by immobility in many aspects of social life, kept the Czech-Slovak relationship in a kind of cold storage. The changes in Soviet Union characterized by the concepts of ???Glasnost??™ and ???Perestroika??™ had no immediate effects on the ruling elite of Czechoslovakia. However streets reacted to that movement coming from abroad, unlike 1960s. The changes in East Germany and the collapse of Berlin had forced the those who were in charge not to undermine the happenings. The negotiations with the leading dissidents had started in November 1989 and communist-dominated parliament unanimously Havel as president of the republic. First free elections since 1946 were held. It was expected that with the absence of a central Communist Party the federal structure would work properly and meet the expectations of the both communities, mainly Slovaks. Surprisingly it did not. The Slovak community had higher aspirations. First of all during the World War II they had enjoyed their own statehood under the supervision of Germans for six years. Second, they had caught up with the Czech in terms of economy and industrialization. Third, the demographic structure of the country had been changed: there were 49 Slovaks for 100 Czechs in 1991, whereas this figure was 29 in 1921. The general tendency among Slovaks was to achieve an independent status. Though the Czech side were ready to make concessions to avoid the separation, Slovakia was on its way to statehood. Facing the inevitability the Czech government urged the dissolution of the federation without delay. At December 31st, 1992 Czechoslovakia ceased to exist once again. This time it is for good.

Aftermath
Both countries, Czech and Slovak republics, experienced considerable difficulties on building their own national identity at post Cold War era. There were no immediate threats from outside powers (Officialy there are no international ennemies. However a nationalistic government in Russia is considered as a potential burden, especially in an engagement with Ukraine). But still Czech do experience minority problem. It is not at the size of pre-World War II era, since most of the minorities were deported, mainly Sudeten Germans. Currently Slovaks are the largest minority in the Czech Republic. The fact that a great number of Slovaks reside in the Czech Republic does not look like as a center of clash: even after the breakup only a small portion of Czechs (7%) have a negative feeling for the Slovak. However Gypsies whose have no protectors (For example Hungarians in Slovakia are protected by their ???home country??™. Hungary) constitute a good number of the minorities. Historically disregarded by the settled communities and labeled for vicious occupations Gypsies lack the citizenship status since according to the new citizenship law they cannot provide the proof of their unspotted criminal history. In Slovakia Gypsies are targets of hostility too. The influences of socialist era fading away, nationalist tendencies and aggressions come to the surface. It is possible to see their reflections when Havel??™s apology from Germany for the deported Sudeten Germans received a great amount of unpopularity in his country. Another related issue is the rise of anti-Semitic tendencies after 1989 (For the commmunist period: ???The official ideology of the communist regimes was, communist leaders asserted, ???anti-Zionist??™ rather than ???anti-Semitic??™, although the distinction in practice was hardly clear???).
Conclusion
The roots of modern Czech nationalism can be traced till late Middle Ages. For occasions such as Hussite revolution of the fifteen century, the National Revival of the nineteenth, the twenty years of independence in the twentieth, and the brief period following the Second World War the national identity had come to the foreground. In the interim periods they had hard time to preserve a notion of national consciousness, especially under Habsburg rule. Slovak nationalism has had a much shorter history than Czech nationalism, but a more linear development. Till First World War Slovak nationalism was so weak that its disappearance was one of the possible outcomes. However, after 1918, stimulated by the independence the national consciousness steadily increased and reached its apogee at the sovereignty which took place between 1939-1945. Though more recent in nature Slovak identity presented the main obstacle in the formation of a Czechoslovakian one. At the formation of the state in 1918, the reluctance came from the Slovak, fearing to lose their national identity when facing more culturally conscious and economically dominant the Czech. Later one, with the investments and efforts of the Communist regime, the strengthening economic infrastructure of the Slovakian side had nurtured the rupture from Czechoslovakian consciousness. On the other hand, Czechs did not consider a national identity without referring to a Czechoslovakian one. Aware that a larger local market and higher population figures would add their economic and political strength they wanted to keep the union as long as possible. In the end the efforts of Czechs to create a nation from a synthetic state and two nations have failed.
In a comparative study it is possible to perceive common features among different cases. With a oversimplifying way we can say that Quebecois separatist movement provides a similar picture: economically underdeveloped part of the union felt uneasiness. The federal government favors in economic and cultural terms that state and with boosting economic development the separatist tendencies grew larger.
In this essay the focus is on the historical development of Czechoslovak identity and the unit of analysis was ethnic communities. Definitely more emphasis deserve the market structure, religious backgrounds, political leaders and the dynamics of the World War II period where Germans create a Slovak state whereas destroying the Czech one. Such an approach requires a more comprehensive study which is beyond the scope of this essay.

Bibliography

??? Leff, C., The Czech and Slovak Republics, (London: Westview Press, 1997)

??? Cviic, Christopher, Remaking the Balkans, (London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1995).

??? Krejci, J. and Machonin, P., Czechoslavakia, 1918-92, (New York: Saint Martin??™s Press, 1996)

??? Sugar, P. and Lederer, I.J., Nationalism in Eastern Europe, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994)

??? Jelavich, Russia??™s Balkan Entanglements, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 2nd ed.

??? Innes, Abby, Czechoslovakia: The Short Goodbye, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001)

??? Kirschbaum, Stanislav, A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival, (New York: Saint Martin??™s Press, 1996)

??? Holy, Ladislav (author), The Little Czech and the Great Czech Nation : National Identity and the Post-Communist Social Transformation, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Cyrus Ii of Persia

Cyrus II of Persia

Cyrus II of Persia, also known as Cyrus the Great, was the illiterate founder of the expansionist Persian empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. Cyrus the Great created the greatest empire history had ever seen. There are few ancient sources who refer to him apart from Herodotus who saw him as an ingenious and ideal king. The key events of his life were summed up by Xenophon when he wrote, ???Cyrus??¦ finding the nations in Asia also independent??¦ started out with a little band of Persians and became the leader of the Medes by their full consent and of the Hyrcanians by theirs; he then conquered Syria, Assyria, Arabia, Cappadocia, both Phrygias, Lydia, Caria, Phoenicia and Babylonia??¦ and many other nations of which one could not even tell the names??¦ the tribes which he brought into subjection to himself were so many that it is a difficult matter even to travel to them all, in whatever direction one begins one??™s journey, whether towards the east or west, towards the north or south??¦???. Within forty years Cyrus had created an empire three times the size of the previous largest in history, the Median empire.
Cyrus became king of Ashan in western Persia (modern Iran) in 559 BC. In 550 BC Cyrus defeated the Median kingm, Astyages, at his capital, Ecbatana. According to Herodotus, because the last Median ruler was very cruel, the Median nobles either turned against their ruler or a portion of the population rebelled. Not a single text from Media is known and Ecbatana lies underneath the modern city of Hamadan so therefore cannot be excavated. The Lydian king, Croesus, was very rich and ambitious. He decided to attack Cyrus II in Persia, in 547 BC and was defeated and retreated to his capital, Sardis, chased by Cyrus. Cyrus then fought the battle of Pteria against the Lydians, after which he marched to Sardis and took the city. Cyrus reported his taking of the Lydian state, ???In May he marched to the land of Lydia. He killed its king. He took its booty. He placed it in his own garrison.???.
In the same year Cyrus made his first contact with the Greeks. The Greek cities under Lydian protection demanded the same treatment that the Lydians had provided, warning that if they were treated poorly, the Spartans would come. Cyrus, not knowing who the Spartans were, invaded these cities and learnt much about the Greeks. After the conquest of these cities, he received an embassy from the Spartans, which forbade him to injure any Greek city on pain of punishment by the Spartans. Between 545 and 540 BC, Cyrus expanded eastward as far as the Jaxartes River in Central Asia and the border of India, although there is very little known about his eastern campaigns. We do know that he introduced sophisticated irrigation to these areas; he split the Oxus River into five channels and built sluice gates to distribute the water over the lands of central Asia. Cyrus also was determined to keep this land as his northernmost frontier, so he constructed a line of seven guard posts along the southern bank of the Oxus River. He successfully reconquered Parthia, Sogdiana, Bactria and Arachosia, all of which were attempting to establish their independence after being under the Median rule. Similarly there is not much known about the conquest of Egypt. The Persian conquest of Babylon and then Phoenicia was straightforward; the king fled and Cyrus marched in peacefully. The Cyrus Cylinder in the British Museum records the taking of Babylonia. The cylinder has often been described as the first charter of human rights. This is a misunderstanding; since the third millennium BC, Mesopotamian kings have begun their reigns with declarations or reforms and Cyrus was simply following tradition.
Cyrus had a policy of religious tolerance and funded the rebuilding of the temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. Cyrus was an able and merciful leader, who was very popular throughout his empire. Significant deeds performed include allowing the Jews out of exile in Babylon back to their native Israel. Persians loved gardens and Cyrus created many. Iransaga was created by Cyrus in 550 BC and is the earliest surviving garden in the world. According to Herodotus, Cyrus died in battle in 530 BC against the Massagatae tribe of central Asia.

——————————————–
[ 1 ]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_empires
[ 2 ]. A. Olmstead, A History of The Persian Empire (1948) p.34-35
[ 3 ]. M. Van De Mieroop, A History of the Ancient Near East (2004), p. 257
[ 4 ]. M. Van De Mieroop, A History of the Ancient Near East (2004), p. 258
[ 5 ]. A. Olmstead, A History of The Persian Empire (1948) p.38-39
[ 6 ]. A. Olmstead, A History of The Persian Empire (1948) p.40
[ 7 ]. A. Olmstead, A History of The Persian Empire (1948) p.42
[ 8 ]. A. Olmstead, A History of The Persian Empire (1948) p.47-48
[ 9 ]. http://members.ozemail.com.au/~ancientpersia/timeline.html
[ 10 ]. M. Van De Mieroop, A History of the Ancient Near East (2004), p.262-263
[ 11 ]. T. Mitchell, The Bible In The British Museum Interpreting the Evidence (1988), p.83
[ 12 ]. http://www.cyrusgreat.com/content/view/13/2/
[ 13 ]. http://www.art-arena.com/pgarden.htm

Cypw Level 3 Course

SHC 31; Promote communication in health, social care or children??™s and young people??™s settings

1.1 Identify the different reasons people communicate

There are many reasons why people communicate. These include;
1) To build relationships. Good communication is needed to build positive relationships. This is especially important when a new child, practitioner or parent joins the setting.
2) To maintain relationships.
3) To gain and share information. By gaining information from colleagues, children and their families it helps us get to know the pupils in our class and be able to plan for their care and education more effectively.
4) To gain reassurance. With children and young people this is particularly important to promote self esteem.
5) To express needs and feelings. All human beings need to express their feelings and we should allow pupils to do the same or they may become frustrated which can then impact on behavior.
6) To share thoughts and ideas. These thoughts and ideas may give colleagues inspiration if they are struggling with a way of tackling an issue.

1.2 Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting

In a school setting a Teaching Assistant will never work independently, it would not be practical to do so. Good communication skills are important to make the team work effectively whether this be the class team (teacher and teaching assistant), year group team or whole school team.
Practitioners who have good communication skills are likely to have strong relationships with children, parents and other adults. By having these strong relationships you will be able to gain and share information effectively, help children settle in the setting and support their learning and transitions.

2.2 Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication

Communication is the process of sharing information, thoughts and feelings between people through speaking, writing or body language. The following factors should be considered when promoting effective communication;
1) Who are we talking to If speaking to an adult our tone of voice and the language we use will be different to that used if we were talking to a child.
2) Environment. If we were having a quick chat with a parent about a lost lunchbox it would be possible to do this in a busy environment such as the classroom at the start of the day. On the other hand if we needed to speak to a parent about their child??™s progress it would be better to have a quieter more private environment to talk in.
3) Time. Younger children especially will need time to think about how to respond in a conversation and we should allow this.
4) Listening skills. Active listening is when we don??™t just hear what is said but think about what was said and how it was said

2.3 Demonstrate a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs

Text Visual aids Newsletters Singing Writing

Music Communication Drama

Speech Play Body language/ Facial Emails
Gestures Expressions

Visual aids, singing and play are more suitable for younger children whereas older pupils may respond better to text or email communication.

3.1 Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways.

Communication is about sharing information but each person communicates slightly differently according to his or her different backgrounds and experiences. These differences can lead to misunderstandings of the same communication. Differences in communication arise due to cultural backgrounds, personality, levels of confidence and competence in communication skills.

3.2 Identify barriers to effective communication.

1) The use of jargon, over-complicated or unfamiliar terms.
2) Emotional barriers or taboos.
3) lack of attention, interest, distractions or irrelevance to the receiver.
4) Difference in perception and viewpoint.
5) Physical disabilities such as hearing problems/speech difficulties.
6) Physical barriers to non-verbal communication
7) Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents.
8) Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping.
9) Cultural differences.

3.3 Demonstrate ways to overcome barriers to communication.

To overcome these barriers you should allow sufficient time when communication. Rushed conversations can mean that the recipient does not have enough time to process information or respond. You should speak clearly, especially when dealing with children or people with a hearing impairment. Facial expressions are a key factor when communicating with children so they should be able to see your face as much as possible. It may help to change your tone especially if the recipient is upset and you will need to check understanding with young children. Where English is a second language and communication is written, it may need to be translated.

3.4 Demonstrate strategies that can be used to clarify misunderstandings.

If there has been a misunderstanding it is important to apologise. A prompt and sincere apology can diffuse situations and will help if you are trying to build long term relationships.
Misunderstandings are less likely to occur if you check understanding with the recipient. Sometimes you will need to simplify your language if a point has not been grasped and check understanding again especially with young children and where English is a second language.

3.5 Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively.

There will be times when extra support is needed to aid effective communication. These include translators or interpreting services, speech and language services and advocacy services. These may be accessed directly through the school or outside agencies such as the local education authority.

4.1 Explain the meaning of confidentiality.
4.2 Demonstrate ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication.
4.3 Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individuals confidentiality and disclosing concerns.

Confidentiality means keeping information safe and private.
Confidentiality is essential in schools to protect the staff and pupils. The data protection act 1998 covers how information about how people should be used. As a teaching assistant you may need to know sensitive information about a child (health, particular needs) because it helps you carry out your role. The information should not be shared unless it is in the child??™s best interest. For example if you knew a child was allergic to a particular food you would need to inform any volunteers that came into school to help with snacks or cooking with the children. It is important you reassure parents that all information will be kept confidential within the school and is not shared with outside sources without their permission. However, if a parent talks to you about personal information relating to their child you should tell them that you may need to share the information with your manager. On a day to day basis any information you hold about a child should be kept securely on site on password protected computers or in locked filing cabinets. If a parent needs to tell you anything sensitive you should direct them to a quiet place to talk so the information is not overheard by others.
Information can be passed on without permission when a child is at risk of abuse or harm. Sometimes failure to share information can be damaging as problems need to be identified early so the appropriate action can be taken.

Cypw Level 2

Effects of Transitions

Starting School
Children moving from nursery to primary school may become shy and withdraw as they may not know anyone at their new school, they may also feel isolated or they may enjoy making new friends. Sometimes the Childs behaviour may change, they may start showing unwanted behaviour, or they may become upset. We can support them by sitting them in smaller groups and letting them get to know the other children slowly or give them a learning buddy, we can also build a good relationship with their parents or carer. Making sure they know their is someone they can talk to if that what they need. You could help them settle in by asking them what they like to do or you could read their favourite story to a group of children this may help them to feel they are included in the group.
A new sibling
When a child has a new brother or sister they may become resentful feel like they are being pushed out or ignored by their parents, they may revert to babyish behaviour they may stop talking and point to the things they want instead of asking for it. They can also become upset when they attend nursery because they feel that they are being left by their parents and the attention is on the new baby. They may not want to join in with activities and try and isolate themselves. We can make time for the child giving one to one attention and make sure the child is included in caring for the baby. At nursery you can ask the child about the baby at circle time and try to encourage the child to join in with activities.
Death of a parent
With the death of a parent the child may become withdraw and depressed, they may isolate themselves not wanting to go out and see friends and spend time by themselves, they may become disruptive in school, they may miss out on their education because of time off school. They may not want to leave the surviving parent and become clingy or they may resent the surviving parent. They may have to deal with their surviving parents problems as well, as the surviving parent may start drinking heavily, then they may become abusive. We can support them by talking to them, giving them time to grieve and refer them to a councillor if they need one. We also have to be aware of safeguarding issues, such as if the child is being cared for properly at home.

Moving house
Moving home from one estate to another the child may find it hard to fit in , they may find it hard to make new friends , they have to get use to new surroundings and they may feel resentful and become disruptive. They may have trouble sleeping and this could affect how they behave at school. They may have to move to a new school as well so they may fall behind academically. We can help them by trying to include them in making decisions on how their room is decorated and let them invite friends over. See if they need any extra help at school. You could pair them up with a learning buddy at school or let them work in smaller groups so that they can make new friends as this might help them settle into the area and accept the move better.
Parents divorcing
When a Childs parents decide to divorce the child may become upset and disruptive, they may become withdraw or depressed as they may feel it??™s their fault that this has happened. The child may feel they have to choose one parent over the other. The child may have to split their time between their parents. If the parents meet new partners they will have to get to know a lot of new people. They may feel shy at first. We can help by talking to both parents and making sure we know who will be picking the child up and when so the child doesn??™t become confused. We can read stories at circle time about families splitting up; we can let other children talk about their experiences. We can offer support to the child and make sure the key worker or teacher knows what going on at home.

Cyps 076

Unit 076
Outcome 4
4.1
On accepting any child into our setting we have a settling in policy where we meet the parents/carers preferably with the child in a familiar setting such as home or play area so the child feels safe and secure on initial meeting at this point we go through policy and some procedures with the parent/carer to make them aware of what will happen in a given situation also we use this time to gain knowledge about the child such as routine, feeding any allergies or skin and health problems to ensure we are aware of anything we need to know we use a prompt sheet as what could seem normal to the parents could be something overlooked at a later time such as allergy to milk and need a specific milk as intolerant. Then we meet at the setting for a short visit to introduce the child then we begin the settling in period normally around two weeks depending on hours attended the parent/ carer will stay with the child during this time and we begin to assess through observation the baby noting any developmental markers then begin to assess what activities age appropriate we can initiate to help the child move along developmentally we have an initial assessment sheet to use and this includes next steps this will all go in the child??™s learning journey folder to build a record and profile of the child??™s learning and development. See copies of policy procedure and contracts *
4.2
In our setting we have lots of safety equipment we use stair gates to prevent a child from gaining access to the stairs and falling or injuring themselves. We use electrical socket covers to prevent electrical shock from inserting objects or little finger into the holes. We have cupboard locks on most of the cupboards to prevent access to certain cupboards but some do not have these so a child can access them for changing matts, wipes, juice also our first aid box in case of emergency I can ask a child to go and collect the first aid kit, but some are locked with a padlock such as medical cupboard or a cupboard containing cleaning items such as bleach or other harmful chemicals. We use a high door stopper on the top of the doors so that little fingers cannot become trapped in a door if shut or slammed by another child. We have soft mats on the patio just outside the back door to prevent a fall from the step onto the concrete. We have a large puppy pod to place our dogs in if the child becomes nervous or frightened of our dogs. We use high chairs for babies weaning and feeding when able to sit to secure them safely during feeding times we also use pushchairs and rains when out walking to minimise risk of injury to child and ensure close supervision of smaller children we have permission slips for outings and carry out risk assessments to ensure every eventuality is foreseen and procedure in place to deal with it. We have also ensured all plants in our garden or not toxic so babies and small children exploring outside will not be harmed if consumed any vegetation. We have baby monitors to listen for a child if sleeping in a separate room we have clear sticky backed plastic on certain glass surfaces to ensure shattered glass will not fall and cause injury. Our garden is secure and doors are kept locked to prevent a child exiting or unauthorised person entering with keys hanging out of reach by the door in case of emergency and need to exit, we also use a visitor??™s book to log visitors, workers or workmen during working hours. Fire blankets fire extinguishers and evacuation plan and procedure all in place and fire drills carried out at different times to ensure every child attending the setting has experienced the drill.
4.3 Was demonstrated to assessor and Ofsted on visits and anything that Ofsted or food standards agency have advised be done have been carried out in full.

Ensuring a safe sleeping environment for babies. SIDS: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (Cot Death)
Anyone who cares for babies, including parents, grandparents, family, friends, Carers, babysitters, childminder and childcare settings.

These are the current recommendations and are for healthy babies up to 1 year of age. A very small number of babies with certain medical conditions may need to be placed to sleep on their stomachs. The baby??™s doctor can tell you what is best for the baby. We use these current guidelines in our setting monitoring the baby noting the time they go down for a nap in the log also toileting times and anything significant, the baby is checked on regularly roughly every fifteen minutes and if not in the same room a baby monitor audio system is used in the setting but generally the baby is in the same room as childcare provided so it??™s easier to monitor during sleep and notice anything that could pose a problem such as tangled in blanket or rolled onto front but breathing freely.

What you can do
Place the baby to sleep on his back for every sleep.? Babies up to 1 year of age should always be placed on their backs to sleep during naps and at night. However, if the baby has rolled from his back to his side or stomach on his own, he can be left in that position if he is already able to roll from tummy to back and back to tummy. If the baby falls asleep in a car safety seat, stroller, swing, infant carrier, or infant sling he should be moved to a firm sleep surface as soon as possible.

Place the baby to sleep on a firm sleep surface.? The cot, mosses basket, portable cot, or play pen should meet current safety standards. Check to make sure the product has not been recalled and has a current BSS mark this can be found online. Do not use a cot that is broken or missing parts, or has drop-side rails. Cover the mattress that comes with the product with a fitted sheet. Do not put blankets or pillows between the mattress and the fitted sheet. Never put the baby to sleep on a chair, sofa, water bed, cushion, or sheepskin. For more information about cot safety standards, visit the British safety standard institute web site or check with the suppliers.

Keep soft objects, loose bedding, or any objects that could increase the risk of entrapment, suffocation or strangulation out of the cot.? Pillows, quilts, comforters, sheepskins, bumper pads, and stuffed toys can cause the baby to suffocate. (Research has not shown us when it??™s 100% safe to have these objects in the cot; however, most experts agree that after 12 months of age these objects pose little risk to healthy babies).

Place the baby to sleep in the same room where you sleep but not the same bed.? Keep the cot or mosses basket within an arm??™s reach of the bed. You can easily watch or feed the baby by having the baby nearby. Babies who sleep in the same bed as their parents/carers are at risk of SIDS, suffocation, or strangulation. Parents can roll onto babies during sleep or babies can get tangled in the sheets or blankets.

Breastfeed as much and for as long as you can.? Studies show that breastfeeding? the baby can help reduce the risk of SIDS.

Schedule and go to all children centre visits.? The baby will receive important immunizations and monitoring of development. Recent evidence suggests that immunizations may have a protective effect against SIDS.

Keep the baby away from smokers and places where people smoke.? If you? smoke, try to quit. However, until you can quit, keep the car and home smoke-free. Don not smoke inside the home or car or setting and don not smoke anywhere near the baby, even if you are outside.

Do not let the baby get too hot.? Keep the room where the baby sleeps at a comfortable temperature. In general, dress the baby in no more than one extra layer than you would wear. The baby may be too hot if they are sweating or if their chest feels hot. If you are worried that the baby is cold, infant sleep clothing designed to keep babies warm without the risk of covering their heads can be used. The ideal room temperature for a baby is 18?°C (a range of 16 to 20?°C is acceptable).

Offer a dummy at nap time and bedtime.? This helps to reduce the risk of SIDS. If you are breastfeeding, wait until breastfeeding is going well before offering a dummy. This usually takes 3 to 4 weeks. It??™s OK if the baby doesn??™t want to use a dummy. You can try offering a dummy again, but some babies don??™t like to use dummies. If the baby takes the dummy and it falls out after he falls asleep, you don??™t have to put it back in.

Do not use home cardiorespiratory monitors to help reduce the risk of SIDS.? Home cardiorespiratory monitors can be helpful for babies with breathing or heart problems but they have not been found to reduce the risk of SIDS.

Do not use products that claim to reduce the risk of SIDS.? Products such as wedges, positioners, special mattresses, and specialized sleep surfaces have not been shown to reduce the risk of SIDS. In addition, some infants have suffocated while using these products.

Remember Tummy Time
Give the baby plenty of ???tummy time??? when they are awake. This will help strengthen neck muscles and avoid flat spots on the head. Always stay with the baby during tummy time and make sure they are awake.

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