One -Acts Research Paper
One of the most noted one act play writers is Tennessee Williams. Williams was born Thomas Lanier Williams in Columbus, Mississippi in 1914. His father was a shoe salesman for a large shoe manufacturer and his mother was a Southern belle. Soon after his childhood, he moved to St. Louis Missouri with his family. He began to write because he found “life unsatisfactory” in MIssouri. Williams then attended three different colleges, worked for his fathers shoe company, and then moved to New Orleans. Tennessee soon fell in love with the city of New Orleans. He then began traveling through the country and writing.
Written in 1937 under the title Escape, Summer at the Lake was unproduced until November 11, 2004, when it opened at the New York City Center in a collection of rarely-seen Williams one-acts titled Five by Tenn. The autobiographical play tells the story of Donald Fenway, a sensitive teenager who feels trapped by his self-absorbed Southern mother and his shoe-company executive father, who wants him to abandon his plans for college and find a menial job. The play was interpreted by several critics as “an early snapshot” of the characters and themes that later appeared in Williams breakthrough 1944 play The Glass Menagerie, which also focused on a combative mother and a dreamy son bent on escape. Williams first critical acclaim came in 1944 when The Glass Menagerie opened in Chicago and went to Broadway. Williams The Palooka is a 1937 one act about an old has-been boxer. The characters are The Palooka (Galveston Joe), The Kid and The Trainer. The Kid is nervous about his first fight, and The Palooka relieves the Kids anxiety by telling about the fictional life he wanted to lead after he retired as Galveston Joe. Its world premiere was presented by the Chattanooga Theatre Centre (Chattanooga, TN) as part of the Fellowship of Southern Writers Southern Writers Conference in 2000, and was later performed on October 2, 2003, by the Hartford Stage Company in Hartford, Connecticut.
In January 1941, Williams completed a one act play centering around “a deranged spinster living in poverty and with her memories of a former lover.” Variously titled Port Mad and The Leafless Block, he revised the play in 1944 and renamed it Portrait of a Madonna. After seeing Jessica Tandys performance in a 1947 West Coast production of Madonna, Williams decided to cast her in the original production of A Streetcar Named Desire. He later wrote, “It was instantly apparent to me that Jessica was Blanche [DuBois].” Tennessees Moonys Kid Dont Cry was originally an eight-page melodrama titled Hot Milk at Three in the Morning, which Williams wrote in 1930 at the University of Missouri??“Columbia. Hot Milk was produced at UMC in 1932, and was revised and titled Moonys Kid Dont Cry in 1941, when it was published in Margaret Mayorgas Best One Act Plays of 1940. It was the first of Williams plays to be published. In both versions of the play, a poor young married couple get into an argument over their child and, eventually, their relationship. The Purification is the only verse play Tennessee Williams wrote; Williams recalled that it was written in the summer of 1940, although his biographer Lyle Leverich thought it more likely written in spring 1942. It was published in 1944 in the anthology New Directions 1944 under the title Dos Ranchos, or the Purification. Set on a ranch in the mid-1800s, the play deals with an incestuous brother/sister relationship and a murder trail. The Purification had its New York debut off-Broadway at the Theatre de Lys on December 8, 1959. Ten Blocks on the Camino Real is a one-act play that was written in early 1946 and published in Williams 1948 play collection American Blues; in 1952, the playwright expanded it into a full-length play, Camino Real. Williams directs the reader to use the Anglicized pronunciation “Ca-mino Real”
This Property Is Condemned was written in 1946. In 1966, the play was expanded into the film of the same name, which starred Natalie Wood and Robert Redford. 27 Wagons Full of Cotton is a 1946 one-act that Williams referred to as “a Mississippi Delta comedy.” In it, Jake, a middle-aged, shady cotton gin owner burns down the mill of Silva Vicarro, a rival in the cotton business. His rival, who knows what happened but cannot prove it, seeks revenge by seducing Jakes young, frail, delicate wife, Flora. Elia Kazans controversial 1956 movie Baby Doll was based on this play. Incidentally, the plays title is written as a line of trochaic pentameter (TWENty SEVen WAGons FULL of COTTon). The Last of My Solid Gold Watches was written in 1946, and centers around a Mississippi shoe salesman named Charlie Colton “whose time has passed and who pathetically echoes himself”; Williams is thought to have drawn on aspects of his father, a traveling salesman, in his portrait of Colton.
Written in 1946, Lord Byrons Love Letter takes place in New Orleans in the late 1800s during Mardi Gras. A Spinster and an Old Woman advertise that they have one of Lord Byrons love letters (written to her grandmother). A Matron stops by to look at it and drags her partially inebriated Husband along. As the spinster reads from her grandmothers diary, it becomes apparent that the grandmother and the old woman are one and the same. According to the two women, the grandmother met Lord Byron in Greece, shortly before his death, and they had a summer filled with romance. After he died, the grandmother retired from the world and remained in complete seclusion as an honor to his memory (this does not prevent her from commenting on the spinsters every action). The Matron and her Husband arent permitted to read the letter, only to look at it from a distance.
Over his lifespan, Williams was awarded four Drama Critic Circle Awards, two Pulitzer Prizes and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He was derided by critics and blacklisted by Roman Catholic Cardinal Spellman, who condemned one of his scripts as ???revolting, deplorable, morally repellent, offensive to Christian standards of decency.??? Although he was faced with criticism and ridicule Tennessee Williams is undeniably one of the most prominent figures in the history of one-act playwriting. As an actress I am proud to perform his work and I am grateful for his contributions to the arts. Tennessee Williams is truly a legend.

Dance Therapy

Jordan LeBlanc
Professor Williams
English 1301
October 11, 2012
Dance Therapist
Dance therapy careers provide the opportunity to use movement to improve the lives of others. Dance therapy is a love dance and a strong desire to help others.
Dance therapists use movement to help clients improve emotional, mental and physical health. According to the American Dance Therapy Association (, they are trained to help others develop communication skills, reduce stress, boost self-esteem and overcome physical disabilities through movement.
The American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA) recommends that aspiring dance therapists possess a strong dance background in addition to a liberal arts degree. As undergraduates, students can pursue degrees in psychology, dance, recreation therapy and other liberal arts or human services fields. After earning a bachelors degree, students can enroll in an ADTA-approved masters degree program in dance therapy. They take courses that may include counseling, body movement assessment, psychotherapy, and movement therapy. A program might also include a supervised internship. There were six masters degree programs in the country that were approved by the ADTA as of September 2011. ???Those schools include Antioch University, New England, Columbia College, Chicago, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Lesley University, Cambridge, Naropa University, Colorado, and Pratt Institute, New York??? (
Students who already hold a masters or doctoral degree in a field related to human services can earn a masters degree in dance therapy by completing specific dance therapy courses and training. There are two different credentials offered by the Dance Movement Therapy Certification Board, Inc: the Registered Dance/Movement Therapist (R-DMT) credential and the more advanced Certified Dance/Movement Therapist (BC-DMT). A BC-DMT can provide training and work in private practice, while an R-DMT can work only in a clinical or educational setting and cannot provide training. To earn the BC-DMT, several thousands of hours of clinical experience are required.
Dance therapists work in nursing homes, schools, hospitals, mental health facilities and counseling centers. They use their specialized skills to work with both groups and individuals. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that jobs for all types of recreational therapists were expected to increase 15% from 2008-2018. ???The median earnings for dance/movement therapists, who are classified as recreational therapists, were $39,410 in 2010??? ( This salary is dependent upon the setting and location in which the therapist works.
There are several paths to becoming a dance therapist. If you are interested in helping people overcome physical and mental health issues through movement.
Some of the degree options are that before earning your masters degree in dance therapy, you must complete an undergraduate degree.
Becoming a dancer requires determination and hard work, and schools help each student realize his or her potential through a rigorous curriculum. Graduates may pursue performance careers or open a dance studio upon completion of a bachelors degree program.
Most schools combine a core of general education courses with daily technique classes, usually in ballet or modern dance. In addition to this technical foundation, schools allow students to choose from an array of dance styles and topics, such as choreography, Labanotation, world dance, tap, jazz, hip hop and Gyro kinesis. Students may wish to select a program that offers the most instruction in their desired style.
To supplement a students training, schools may invite guest artists to hold master classes or work in-residence. This allows students to experience different techniques and make connections with professionals in the dance industry. Students may also wish to research the careers and accomplishments of regular dance faculty, as some schools employ well-known dancers, producers and choreographers.

Although most dancers begin formal training at an early age, a degree in dance can provide the theoretical and technical mastery that is required for professional careers within the industry. Dance degree programs can be found at the associate, bachelors and masters degree level.
Associate degrees in dance typically are designed for students who plan to transfer to a 4-year degree program at a college or university. The curriculum provides basic instruction in dance and provides the dance knowledge and performance experience needed to meet selective admission criteria for upper-level programs. Students study the history, theory, technique and art of dance. A variety of classical and contemporary dance styles, such as ballet, jazz, interpretive and modern dance are included. Although previous dance experience is preferred for program applicants, admission requirements typically only include a high school diploma or GED.
???Program Coursework for an associate degree program in dance combines a comprehensive dance curriculum with required general education coursework in English, mathematical studies, humanities, natural sciences and social sciences???( The core dance curriculum usually includes the following topics:
Dance history
Modern dance
Dance production
Choreography basics
Social dance
Although many graduates will choose to transfer to 4-year bachelors degree program, others will pursue immediate career opportunities. Individuals who have completed a formal dance program at the associate degree level may find job opportunities as a:
Dance teacher
Professional dancer
Dance coach
Dance fitness instructor
Dance therapists arent the only types of therapists who focus on movement. Others include recreational therapy job and occupational therapy career.
Prior to entering into a dance therapy program, you may be able to complete some or all of your prerequisite coursework without going to campus. The information needed for some of the online courses and degrees for students interested in studying liberal arts or human services fields before pursuing a dance therapy graduate program are an online B.A. in psychology, Counseling psychology online, recreational therapy online.

After learning what goes into becoming a Dance therapist, going to a school in either New York, Chicago, Colorado, Philadelphia, Cambridge, or New England, And with only making about $37,000 a year, Ive decide that this is no longer the career I wish to pursue

Works Cited

???ADTA – Home.” ADTA – Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2012.
“How to Become a Dance MovementA Therapist.” Health
Careers. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2012. .
“U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2012. .

Dance Rev

A Man??™s Guide

1. I??™m comfortable in my own skin
2. I??™m strong confidant communicator
3. I??™m in control of my own feelings outside events don??™t disable me.
4. I??™m not needy I keep my power for me
5. I have no sexual hang-ups I??™m comfortable with my views
6. I??™m comfortable around women.
7. I can hold back when I choose and delay gratification.
8. I don??™t tolerate myself or disrespect my time property
9. I??™m a catch any women that is fortunate to be with me have my attention
10. I??™m not impressed by outward symbols like money or status
11. I may be smitten by a woman, I don??™t tell her early on I don??™t let it slip indirectly.
12. I don??™t let women take my power or time
13. I am unselfconscious, I don??™t care what women think
14. I put myself and my life first
15. I deserve, & I have permission to talk to exceptional women.
16. I??™m indifferent to the out come of all situations
17. If someone responded to me negatively their the one who missed out on something: keep this in my mind even when the negative emotion come up
18. The more you act in the face of the emotion the more you will discard it when in comes up,
19. If something you do where your emotions take over, wherever you go, that is okay because anyone would flip out in that situation; you are holding yourself back.
20. I don??™t let women use there looks or sexual power to take advantage, there are no special privileges.
21. I understand the culture ??“ get it you know things like Cosmo magazine, Mtv, style food music and humor, I just get it; alright I??™m with it.
22. I can deal with any test a women throws at me matter of fact I find it usually kind of cute.
23. I live in my reality, you??™re a guess.
24. I??™m at cause in the world make it happen I??™m not an object, not a victim.
25. I have good, posture, breath well; I have slowly, and deliberately.
26. I??™m a good communicator especially what I want, I??™m in control, I don??™t let outside defense stabilize me.
27. I??™m not ne needy, I keep my power for me, I think sex, I don??™t have any hang ups around it.
28. I??™m comfortable around women, I can wait, I don??™t tolerate disrespectfulness, of myself, my time or my property, period.
29. I??™m not impressed by outward symbols money or status along with anyone; I??™m just not impressed, by outward symbols of status.
30. The most important influence on a person thinking and behavior is the people they surround themselves with. ???My important influence is the people ???I??? surround myself with.
31. I surround myself with success; I always know it will pull me up.???
32. ???I must ride my life with negative people, & surround myself with coaches, positive successful role models.

Dance Performance Review

4/21/2009 |

The choreographer, Stephen Page, has created ???Call-The Poison??™ Fish as part of the production; Fish- An Unborn Soul, featuring the Bangarra Dance Theatre, a ???…very theatrical, contemporary work….exploring the Koori culture particularly mythology and tribal structures???. Page has effectively, comically yet dramatically shown the story of a poison fish through the use of non-movement components including; lighting, sound, backdrops, and water on the stage, as well as the type of movements in each part and the spatial arrangements. I viewed this contemporary dance piece on video and so film work is also a way in which the choreographer??™s intention is put forth. There is no given theme, and so each responder must create their own meaning from the piece and so the choreographer has succeeded in his intention. There is however a storyline that is evident; the thoughts of the poison fish; we see lonely, caring and hopeful thoughts displayed through different sections of the piece.
Within the contemporary dance piece ???Call- the Poison Fish??™ the use of non-movement components is specifically vital and obvious. Page has used a reddish-pink coloured, dark toned backdrop continually throughout the piece which reinforces the idea that the dance is taking place in an underwater world. The lighting that has been used is constant and always leaves the stage in just enough light to see the dancers whilst not lighting up the stage completely, this again adds to the idea that the dance takes place in a space where light is scarce. There also appears to be a thin layer of water sitting on the stage, that is danced in which reinforces the idea of the dance taking place under water. Non-movement components such as the backdrop, lighting and water on the stage are used to reinforce the idea that this dance piece takes place underwater.
The sounds and music changes as each part begins and ends, setting the scene and establishing the emotions involved with each part. In the first part the music is lively and hopeful and this leads the audience to feel as though the poison fish could fit in with the other fish and as the second part begins the music turns to sound and voices are heard continually chanting something in a foreign language, which positions the viewers to remember the lone poison fish whilst the other fish are happily dancing. The third part starts and we hear slow, depressed music making the audience feel sorry for the poison fish who is all alone, and at the end of the piece the fourth part begins and the music is dreamlike making viewers feel as though the final part of the dance is the poison fish??™s dream. Music and sounds play and important part in showing the choreographers intention for this contemporary dance piece.
The types of movements used by the choreographer are also vital to the intention of the choreographer being put forth. One type of movement that is very common to the whole piece is when the dancers dances as though they are floating, every movement is done in the same timing and at the same pace, it appears as though gravity has no effect on the dancers and this type of movement leads the viewers to feel as though it is taking place underwater where the water controls the speed of movements as well as makes the dancers float. There is allot of floor work in this piece, we see the dancers quite often rolling around the floor as if on the ocean floor. Some typically known ???fish movements??™ such as two hands together in front of the body are used which reminds us that the dancers are portraying fish. The types of movements used by Page are successfully used to set the scene in which the dance takes place.
Page has used an interesting spatial arrangement in this piece which while unique, suits the production and the storyline. Both personal space and general space are used effectively to portray wether the dancers are alone or in a group. When the dancers are alone personal space is used and it represents that the dancers cannot be with the other dancers for different reasons. When dancing in a group general space is used this positions the audience to feel as though the dancers are happier than in personal space. There is in the middle of the dance a duet in which the dancers, who resemble fish, dance in personal space together without touching. This is very effective as it looks as though they are underwater and water is between them, which once again remind the audience that the dance is about fish and therefore taking place underwater. The used of space by the choreographer is very successful in portraying the theme and intentions of this dance piece.
This piece was performed specifically for the purpose of filming, and creating a video from it, and so film work is a important part of this piece. There are many instances in which one image is overlayed on top of another image which is better than the traditional way of only showing one section of the stage at a time. There is also slow motion sections in which emphasis is placed on what one person is doing at each time, this draws the viewers attention towards whatever it is the choreographer wants to emphasis. As it is filmed the ability to fade in and out is also used which is a different way to end each section rather than simply turning of the camera. Film work plays an important part in the presentation of this film but does not have much effect on the portrayal of the purpose nor intention of this dance piece.
Stephan Pages purpose and intention of the contemporary dance piece Call-The poison Fish part of the production Fish-An Unborn Soul has been shown through the use of; non-movement components, the type of movements, the spatial arrangements and the film work used. All the techniques used together portray the storyline intended by the choreographer. The theme that the choreographer anticipated is unknown so each person creates their own using the given storyline. The choreographer has successfully portrayed the intended themes and storylines.

Dance Essay

Dance analysis
Megan Walshe

Dance doesn??™t just involve movement to a song; it involves individuals applying dance technique and performance quality of intricate elements to provide a work with meaning and beauty. These intricate elements include various body skills such as locomotor and non-locomotor sequences which relate to the way in which the anatomical structure works to provide strength, endurance and coordination in performing these sequences. In performance there must always be quality; which is the control and variation of dynamics, alignment, kinaesthetic awareness, musicality, focus and commitment to send a purpose of meaning in a song to make others want to watch and appreciate the work. Through my dance core performance to ???Slow Dancing in a Burning Room??™ By John Mayer, I have attempted to incorporate all of these elements of dance. This analysis will provide a deep understanding of how the elements were or were not correctly performed, and what improvements could be made.

Locomotor sequences are in every dance piece, they are essentially a group of intricate movements following each other. A locomotor sequence is defined as a movement that travels from place to place usually identified by weight transference on the feet. As there are many complex locomotor sequences throughout the core performance dance, my example of this element is the retire step, more towards the start of the piece, where one arm is extended horizontally out and the other is rotating around to meet the other, while in retire and changing direction of the body to face the front left hand corner of the space. Then stepping three steps on which the third the left leg slides across the floor in a circular motion as well as the arms simultaneously to then face the back, to then slide on that left leg to the floor. In my performance the full extent of the shape where the leg slides down to the floor was not reached. In the transition to the floor I rushed too quickly into the roll which followed instead of holding the shape and completely sliding down into the vertical position. My left leg resulted in an unplanned bend in the shape. It is possible that I felt I did not have the strength to transition softly so I bent the knee to support my roll. The way this fault could be improved is with the use of kinaesthetic awareness and confidence in the movement.

Opposite to the Locomotor is the non-locomotor sequence. A sequence also used in every dance piece it is described as a movement that does not travel but rather moves on its own axis staying on a stationary base. In this work, an example of a non-locomotor movement is the repeated movement stationary on the left leg whilst the exercising leg is extended and rotated distal from the front of the body to the back, eversion, all the while the arms are also performing a clockwise rotation superior to the head. This sequence was performed with coordination and balance in my core performance. Evident because the right muscles were engaged and rotation was coming from the hip. These muscles included the deltoid, gluteus maximus and medius, pectoralis major and abdominals. To improve the shape I could have possible extended a little further and held the shape for half a count longer.

Strength is one of the most important elements in dance. To perform body skills and sequences you need strength to hold the weight in different situations and movements. Strength is defined as the ability of an individual to exert a muscular contraction or force against a resistance. Without strength we would not learn to be able to perform complex and difficult movements. An example of difficult strength is found in the bridge section of the song. Our weight is supported by the Triceps, Biceps and Deltoid in the upper body as we extend the left leg vertical to create a straight alignment. Engaging in all four abdominal layers, we hold the shape and gently drop it down over to the opposite side it started on. In my performance, I successfully showed the vertical alignment and used the correct muscles to hold the shape. My fault in the sequence was that my drop to the opposite side was tedious and clunky. The possible reason for this is that as I brought down the leg I felt as though I had already achieved the shape so I could relax the muscles, where I should have tensed them to slowly and gently land softly to the ground.

Throughout the core performance, stamina is essential. Without stamina, the dance would not sustain strength or balance or coordination. It is described as the ability to sustain prolonged physical or mental effort. In the locomotor sequence where I travel down to the bottom right hand stage corner my grand jetes had lost elevation. Because I didn??™t reach elevation I didn??™t reach the full extension of the shape. This occurred most likely because of a drop in muscle endurance and stamina as it was reaching toward the end of the piece. To improve this, I need to make sure that my posture is still upright with the abdominals and gluteus engaged ready to propel myself off the floor, as well as engaging more muscles in the supporting leg which propels off the floor including the gastrocnemius, Achilles tendon and soleus. In doing this, a good idea would be go for runs, gradually longer each time so to improve how long I can run for each time. By practicing this, I can train myself to dance for a longer amount of time without my muscles becoming weak or tired.

Coordination is another body skill needed to perform a piece with quality. Meaning balanced and effective interaction of movement, coordination is used in every movement and sequence in dance. Without coordination movement would not make sense or look good. A complex example of coordination is the table top sequence toward the beginning of the dance. This is the extension of the left leg abducted from the body posterior. At the same time this extension is happening, the arms extend our anterior at a vertical parallel alignment. Following the table top line, is the inward bend of both the exercised leg and the arms which then snap back out to extend and then snatch back. In snapping the leg and arm back out, the supporting leg propels off the floor to elevate up and then drops back down on the snatch back. Eye line is an important key in coordination. For this shape to be reached and correctly performed the eye line must direct the movement. My fault in this movement was that my eye line got confused and didn??™t follow the arm up to the roof instead confusing the following movement which resulted in the landing being sloppy and off centre. What needs to improve is coordination in eye line and the purpose it serves in coordinating each movement with another.

To have a quality dance, the movements performed need to be aligned in proportion to the muscles and bones in the body. Alignment is the key to each movements shape. Described as the relationship of the skeleton to the line of gravity and the base of support, Alignment keeps the quality in line through each extension, abduction, and flexion and so on. Related with coordination, balance and strength, alignment works with all these body skills show the precise beauty in shape. A prime example of alignment in the class dance is the plank position which is then followed by the fetal contraction position. Correct alignment was shown through the plank which was performed at its full extent. By the stacking of the bones in relation to the abdominal muscles, the plank like line was evident. Then transitions into the fetal position where the abdominal muscles create a contraction of the head and stomach. An example in the dance where alignment was lost was the off centre extension. Early in the dance after a single turn we perform a lateral tilt where the body is off its natural centre extending the leg and arm which form a diagonal shape. The shape of this tilt was not reached as I did not stay in proper alignment. This was because I did not lock in my pelvic bone in relation to the gluteus maximus. Performing the off centre tilt without the hip locked my balance and alignment become messy and off. To improve this shape I need to lock in the correct muscles and bones as well as engaging my external obliques and other abdominal muscles to support the extension of the leg in the lateral tilt.

To create variation and meaning to a performance use of control and variation of dynamics is used. Dynamics are used to portray movements with a special meaning. Relating to musicality, which is the attention and sensitivity to the musical elements of a dance while performing; dynamics connect to the feel and sound of the music along with the lyrics being sung. Dynamics can be soft, rough, dramatic, sharp and so on. Musicality uses dynamics to find the theme of the song and the motif, which is the movement inspiring other movements, within the dance. The motif in this dance is the movement performed on the lyrics ???slow dancing in a burning room??™ ironically being the title of the song. This is the non-locomotor movement involving the L shapes arms anterior to the torso and the parallel alignment of the feet of which the right foot performs a dorsiflexion which rotates a half circle before coming back to parallel whilst the L shaped arms move in the same direction, the right arm performing a circumduction slightly moving the other arm to follow. This is carried out with soft dynamic as the lyric is ???slow dancing??™. Variation in dynamic is evident at the beginning of the dance where the soft, circular high release is performed over the lower back but then contrasts to a sharp drop towards the back of the room. Dynamics keep the piece interesting and meaningful to watch.

For a performance to be more than satisfactory, great focus and commitment is needed. Full dedication and attention throughout the dance is vital, and through my performance I put in 100% effort doing the best I could and continuing even if I did a movement incorrect. To show evidence of focus throughout the piece, my consistency of interpretation was found throughout. In my perspective the piece was a dramatic piece as the lyrics refer to the words, ???doomed??™, ???dying??™, ???sadness??™ and ???burning??™. This pointed to the struggle of death and ???going down??™. With this, I felt the meaning behind the movements was of utter importance to keep focus in especially my facial expressions and eye line to keep my interpretation consistent and committed throughout. An example of this was the bridge. As I swayed my torso back and forth before the sequence of the leg vertical I made sure my intention of that slow struggle was evident still in the dance especially the climax of the bridge to truly show the meaning behind my movements.

One of the most important keys in dance is definitely kinaesthetic awareness. A difficult element of dance as it is used throughout the piece at all times, kinaesthetic awareness is the ability to feel and know where one??™s body is in the space, including legs, hands, arms, feet, without having to look. For a dancer to use this is every movement and sequence they perform it will be a successful performance. In my performance I unsuccessfully incorporated the use of this element. Towards the end of the dance mainly, especially in the eight count roll on the floor constantly rolling over slowly and dragging it out, I lost awareness of what my feet were doing and I concentrated too much on what the top half of my body instead of the bottom as well, resulting in dead weight feet. This meaning my feet were left hanging instead of being tight and together during each roll they flopped around one after the other sometimes pointed, sometimes forgotten. By transitioning each movement to the next ensuring each part of the body is still containing some purpose even if it??™s maintaining stillness in a quality line will be the step to improve my awareness.

The final element to ensure performance quality using dance technique is safe dance practice. Safe dance practice is essential in preventing any injuries when performing complex body skills. To help us understand safe dance practice we use the acronym S.M.A.R.T. The S stands for stretch strength and stamina; three things that must be used as a dancer. Before doing any complex movement you must stretch out each muscle in the body to ensure full potential for performing. The M stands for maintenance of your fitness levels to increase overall dance endurance and ability. To maintain your fitness it is recommended to do daily dance classes and daily stretching. The A stands for alignment important for any complex body skill in creating a quality line and shape. R stands for r.i.c.e.d which is the five steps after an injury occurs. These steps are resting, so to not cause more damage than has already been done, then ice. This reduces swelling and pain. Compression is the third step which stops bleeding and swelling, then elevating the injury to reduce further swelling and bleeding. Finally the d stands for diagnosis where you go to a medical practitioner who will diagnose your injury. The final letter in S.M.A.R.T stands for training. Training in all areas of performance quality and technique helps stabilise the elements in dance such as body skills, balance and coordination. As we trained during class for our assessment we practiced safe rolls to the floor. An example of this is in the chorus, the fall to the side on the floor previous to the slow dancing in a burning room lyric. This drop has been carefully planned to reduce stress and injury on the body. By leaning to the opposite side of the drop and letting the knees and legs drop first, the risk of falling on the head or neck is reduced and the landing becomes softer.

In overall technique I give myself a 5 out of 10 mark and for performance quality I give myself 6/10. As an individual performer I tried my best to perform all the dance elements in creating a quality piece. My performance felt better than my skills and technique shown within the dance and by analysing myself I can learn from my mistakes and improve on what I did incorrectly.

Dance Analysis

Jerick Catral
Dance Analysis: Caught by David Parsons
In the dance Caught by David Parsons, we observe a performance that attempts to create the eerie experience of observing something supernatural. In the introductory scene of the performance, we observe a solitary dancer dressed in white pants. This works very well in contrast with the dark background. We can clearly tell that he is the focus of the dance, as the solitary beam of light would suggest. The music played sounds computer generated and unnatural. It is highly irregular, off-rhythm, and inconsistent. However, while the same sounds are being repeated, they are not being repeated at a consistent rhythm. The movement of the dancer follows this music in its inconsistency. We often see him freezing his body in a very awkward position. The dancer also moves along a path instructed created by a beam of light. However, he chooses to transfer from one to one slowly, often performing a few movement before moving on to the next one. Eventually, the strobe effects come into play, and we observe him moving across the stage with the same stance or position, but at different locations. He will assume one position at a location, click the strobe on once, and then move a few feet or so across, assume the same position, and then click the strobe on once again. This effect makes it seem as if he is floating across the stage. By blocking out the transition into his different stances, we focus on the final product, and see only what he desires us to see. In his last movement though, we are allowed to see him fall after his jump. The final movement suggests that he was floating above the stage during the period the strobe light was in effect. What does it all mean One possible interpretation of the dance would be that the dancer is trying to create the experience of observing something seemingly unnatural by excluding certain details. The awkward contortions, and off-rhythm music, and use of strobe effects would certainly suggest that the dancer is trying to demonstrate something that is unnatural. The choice of clothing however, adds emphasis to the natural. Perhaps the dancer chose this wardrobe to effectively contrast his natural attributes with the unnatural rhythm of the performance.

Dance Abaout Anything

Rakna med dans!

??“ om maluppfyllelse i matematik med dansen som medel

2. Inledning

Vi ar intresserade av att ta reda pa hur dansen kan anvandas som ett medel i matematikundervisningen for att na malen i kursplanen for matematik for arskurs 9. Det kanns relevant for oss att utforska detta omrade infor var kommande yrkesroll som danslarare da vi kommer att stallas infor olika krav och samarbeten med larare i andra amnen an vart eget. Utover att arbeta med dans som eget amne kommer vi troligtvis att uppleva arbetsformer dar dansen anvands som ett medel for att na kunskap inom andra amnen. Kunskap och kompetens om dansen som medel utgor darfor en viktig del i var kommande yrkesroll. Att vart val foll pa matematik som amne ar en foljd av att dans och matematik idag arbetas med pa ett integrerat satt vid manga skolor. Vi tror att det finns manga vagar for elever att na kunskap i amnet matematik och olika vagar for att na malen i kursplanen. Var uppfattning ar att estetiska larprocesser i allmanhet och dans som verktyg i synnerhet kan bidra till att stimulera larandet i matematik och att genom att anvanda en kreativ process i larandet utveckla elevernas kunskap ytterligare. Vi anser att skolan skall kunna erbjuda flera metoder i matematikundervisning och att matematiken skall bli ett levande amne i skolan dar eleverna far utova amnet praktiskt. Det tror vi starker dem i deras larande.

3. Syfte och fragestallningar

Syfte: Vart syfte ar att ta reda pa matematiklarare, danslarare och elevers uppfattningar kring arbete med dansmatte.


– Hur integreras dans och matematik i dansmatte

– Vad ar elevernas reaktioner pa dansmatte

– Hur upplever matematik- och danslararna dansmatten och att den utvecklar eleverna i deras matematiska larande

Etiska overvaganden

4. Bakgrund

4.a Dansmatte

4.b Matematik

Om amnets syfte och roll i utbildningen skrivs sa har i kursplanen for matematik for grundskolan:

???Utbildningen i matematik skall ge eleven mojlighet att utova och kommunicera matematik i meningsfulla och relevanta situationer i ett aktivt och oppet sokande efter forstaelse, nya insikter och losningar pa olika problem???(Skolverket, 2000)

Lowing (2006) menar att det finns en vanlig uppfattning som sager att det ar latt att undervisa i matematik i och med de bestamda regler som finns for hur undervisningen skall ga till samt de laromedel som ar latta att folja och som ger den informationen som behovs. Samtidigt menar hon att det finns forskning och undersokningar som visar att elevers matematikkunskaper inte ar vad de borde vara och hon staller sig fragan hur det kan komma sig. Svaret enligt manga forskare ar att matematik ar ett komplext amne. Lararen har ett svart uppdrag. Samtidigt som denne skall undervisa i amnet ska aven lararen fungera som en vagledare for elevernas olika behov. Detta kraver stor kunskap om olika arbetsformer och arbetssatt fran lararen sida (a.a). Lowing (2006) sager att det stalls stora krav pa lararen utifran vad styrdokumenten sager. Lararen skall utveckla elevernas intresse for matematik och eleverna samtidigt ges mojligheter att upptacka estetiska varden och uppmuntras att finna gladjen i att losa problem. Kommunikationen mellan larare och elev ar oerhort viktig for att det individualiserade larandet ska fungera och lararen maste finnas till och vagleda men ofta upplever eleverna att lararen inte racker till for alla. For att eleverna ska na malen i matematik ar det viktigt att lararen har de matematiska kunskaper som kravs samt beharskar amnets didaktik. Innehallet i undervisningen ar av central betydelse och kunskapsmalen nas inte av pa forhand valda eller givna ramar (resurser) aven om de kan bidra till att underlatta genomforandet av undervisningen och pa sa satt gora att malen lattare nas (a.a).

I SOU 1992:94 talas om vikten av att anvanda matematiken i vardagsliv, samhallsliv och i den vetenskapliga verksamheten. ???Matematik ar en levande mansklig konstruktion som omfattar skapande, utforskande verksamhet och intuition. (??¦) All matematik innehaller nagon form av abstraktion.????  (Skolverket 2007). Enligt Lowing (2006) ar konkretisering en vag for att na abstraktion och utgangspunkten bor vara nagot som eleverna kanner till, exempelvis en metafor eller en situation dar aven ett material kan anvandas for att poangtera vad det nu handlar om. Att konkretisera matematikundervisningen ger eleverna mojlighet att utifran de erfarenheter de redan har fa nya kunskaper och okad forstaelse. Visionen med konkretisering ar att gora kommunikationen sa bra som mojlig och darigenom aven optimera inlarningen (a.a).

4.c Estetiska larprocesser

Vad ar estetik Ordet estetik betyder ???upplevt genom sinnena??? och har sitt ursprung i grekiskans ord aistetikos. Baumgarten och Kant ar tva framtradande tankare fran 1700-talet som hade tidiga tankar om estetikens innebord. 1700-talets synsatt skilde det sensoriska och kroppsliga fran det intellektuella nar det kom till estetik och Baumgarten ville kunna diskutera andra satt att uppfatta varlden pa an via intellektet. Han bidrog till att skapa en filosofisk disciplin for estetiken och skapade nagot som nastan kan liknas vid ett vetenskapligt system. Bland Europas intellektuella fanns viljan att skapa en egen filosofi for ???konsten och det skona??? (Alerby & Elidottir, 2006, s.16). Ordet Aistetikos andrade Baumgartden till tyska aesthetica som utvecklades vidare i manga andra sprak och lever vidare an idag, daribland i svenskans estetik. Baumgarten uppfattade estetiken som rationalistisk och deduktiv och gjorde aven han en atskillnad mellan det som upplevdes med sinnena och det som upplevdes med intellektet. Detta synsatt frangicks senare och Baumgarten kom att fa stor betydelse for estetiken som kunskapsomrade. Kants syn pa estetik stod i kontrast med Baumgartens. Kant var medveten om samhallets vilja att skapa en universell sanning om vad som ar god smak gallande estetik, men enligt honom var estetiska varderingar varken logiska eller kognitiva utan subjektiva. Han kom att utveckla den estetiska filosofin och anda sedan hans tid har subjektivitet, objektivitet och normativitet diskuterats och den senare estetiska filosofin har velat bestamma konstens natur. (Alerby & Elidottir, 2006; Lindstrand & Selanderm 2009).

Vad ar larande Enligt Platons romantiska tanke har varje manniska redan kunskapen inbyggd i sig och behover endast ratt guidning for att den skall visa sig. Eleven kan uppna kunskap genom att ratt fragor stalls av lararen. En annan, mer rationalistisk tanke grundar sig pa John Lockes teori om att manniskan ar som ett oskrivet blad och eleven lar genom att fa kunskapen ???inskriven??? i huvudet. Debatten om larande har de senaste arhundradena har svangt fram och tillbaka mellan dessa synsatt och gor det an idag, mellan den mer romantiska synen att kunskap ar nagot inneboende och den mer rationalistiska dar fokus ligger mer pa disciplin och ordning. (Lindstrand & Selander, 2009)

Enligt Weissenreider (2008) haller en estetisk laroproces samman sinnen, intellekt och kanslor. Den innehaller ???produktion, reception och reflektion kring den enhet som form och innehall utgor??? (Weissenreider, 2008, s.76).

Estetiska processer kan vara kreativa, men inte alla kreativa processer betraktas som estetiska. Anda finns det en estetisk dimension i all form av kunskapsbildning som beror bade det kroppsligt sinnliga och det formmassigt forfinade, bade praktiska gestaltningsprocesser och vardeomdomen.

(Lindstrand & Selander, 2009, s.122).

I Lpo 94 betonas vikten av att skolan skall erbjuda eleverna olika kunskapsformer och att skolan bor uppmarksamma de estetiska aspekterna i skolarbetet.

Eleverna skall fa uppleva olika uttryck for kunskaper. De skall fa prova och utveckla olika uttrycksformer och uppleva kanslor och stamningar. Drama, rytmik, dans, musicerande och skapande i bild, text och form skall vara inslag i skolans verksamhet. En harmonisk utveckling och bildningsgang omfattar mojligheter att prova, utforska, tillagna sig och gestalta olika kunskaper och erfarenheter. Formaga till eget skapande hor till det som eleverna skall tillagna sig.
(Skolverket, 1998, s. 8)

Alerby & Jorunn Elidottir (2006) skriver att ordet estetik forekommer i kursplanerna for naturorienterade amnen som t.ex. biologi, kemi, fysik och matematik och kursplanen for matematik i grundskolan sager foljande:

Utbildningen syftar till att utveckla elevens intresse for matematik och mojligheter att kommunicera med matematikens sprak och uttrycksformer. Den skall ocksa ge eleven mojlighet att upptacka estetiska varden i matematiska monster, former och samband samt att uppleva den tillfredsstallelse och gladje som ligger i att kunna forsta och losa problem.
(Skolverket 2007)

I Larandets Konst (Alerby & Jorunn Elidottir, 2006) betonas aven vikten av estetik som kommunikation. Varje individ utgor centrum i sitt universum dar estetik ar en viktig aspekt i kommunikation med andra och dar man relaterar till andra genom symboler eller sprak. De betonar ocksa betydelsen av estetik for larares bedomning och betygsattning av elever (a.a).

Utbildningen i matematik skall ge eleven mojlighet att utova och kommunicera matematik i meningsfulla och relevanta situationer i ett aktivt och oppet sokande efter forstaelse, nya insikter och losningar pa olika problem.
(Skolverket 2007)

Enligt Alerby & Jorunn Elidottir (2006) gar det inte att separera olika former av kunskap, eftersom all kunskap kan vavas samman och relatera till varandra pa ett eller annat satt och det finns inte nagon mening att skilja dem at. Utan tvekan kan estetik vara en del av kunskap men forfattarna sager att de har svart att se nagon fordel med att dela upp kunskap i olika former och jamfora dem. Forfattarna vill starka skolans status som kulturell miljo och starka den estetiska aspekten av kunskapsinlarning.

Att lara med dans som medel

Det utmarkande for dans som konstform ar att den finns i kroppen pa ett satt som ingen annan konstform finns och ord, handlingar och kanslor kan komma till uttryck genom ett kreativt anvande av kroppen. Dans innehaller en existentialistisk aspekt som gor att personen som dansar kanner ett engagemang och ett deltagande i situationen samt ett ansvar att agera. Verkligheten kan formedlas genom det kinestetiska sinnet samt det kroppsliga minnet. Genom att arbeta med sinnena starks uppfattningsformagan vilket har betydelse for det skapande arbetet och det innebar ett stort varde for all kunskapsinhamtning inom olika amnesomraden i skolan. For att ett larande ska ske kravs ett aktivt arbete med sinnena och att kroppen finns med som en deltagande. (Gronlund&Wigert, 2004) Dans och rorelse kan anvandas som en del i ett larande oavsett vad larandet gallet. Att lara genom dans innebar att genom det fysiska lara sig det kognitiva och att hjarnan lar genom kroppen. (McGreevy-Nichols m.fl. 2006) Statens Kulturrad har tillsammans med Danshogskolan utarbetat skriften Dans i skolan (1990) dar fem aspekter pa dansundervisning beskrivs: den estetiska, den sociala, den kulturella, den emotionella samt den kinestetiska. (Bjorklund Dahlgren (1990). Detta kommer vi beskriva lite utforligare!

4.d Vygotskij

Den kulturhistoriska skolan ar en marxistisk psykologi som pa 1920-talet byggdes upp av Vygotskij och kollegor till honom. Vygotskij overforde teorin om produktion och produktionsforhallanden till tankarna om barns samspel med vuxna och tankar om sprak och tankande som verktyg. Han menade att barn ingar alltid i ett socialt och kulturellt sammanhang och att det ar viktigt for barn att klara av saker tillsammans med andra for att utvecklas. Vygotskij talade om ???omradet for proximal utveckling???, ett omrade som spanner mellan vad barnet ytterst klarar av att utfora pa egen hand och vad barnet klarar av att utfora med hjalp av en person som besitter storre kunskap. Vid arbete i den proximala utvecklingszonen bor fokus ligga pa vad barnet redan kan och darifran skall barnet, exempelvis genom en larares uppgifter eller fragor, utmanas att klara av sadant som egentligen ligger lite utover barnets formaga. Da bekraftas barnet i det han/hon redan kan och far aven ny information och en utveckling kan ske. Det ar alltsa i dessa samspel med andra som barnet utvecklas. (Hwang&Nilsson 2003) Enligt Vygotskij har manniskan foljaktligen en potential att lara i samspel med andra som ar av storre betydelse for larandet an den kunskapsniva personen befinner sig pa (Maunula, 1996). Strindberg (2006) sager om Vygotskijs teori att barnet ???lanar??? kunskaper fran den vuxne och genom det tror att det kan, innan det verkligen innehar kunskapen. Han har sjalv liknande tankar som Vygotskij och menar att genom en elevs deltagande i en aktivitet, aven om han/hon inte beharskar vare sig uppgiften eller vet vad de gor, anda kan leda till ett larande (a.a).

Vygotskij betonade aven vikten av att barn ar medvetna om hur de tanker for att forbattra sin formaga att losa problem. Denna medvetenhet ar starkt paverkad av den sprakliga formagan. Spraket bidrar till att barnet skapar sig ett inre tal vilket gor barnet medvetet om sitt tankande. Spraket ar saledes ett verktyg for tankandet. (Hwang&Nilsson 2003). Enligt Vygotskij leder aktiviteter till larande och det ar vad barnet gor som ar viktigt, inte i forsta hand vad det har i huvudet. Likval kan dessa aktiviteter vara psykologiska processer som larande, problemlosande, vilja, emotioner, talande, lasande och tankande. Dessa processer har fyra undergrupper av kannetecken: sociala, medierade, situerade och kreativa. Det sociala kannetecknet innebar att manniskan forst lar tillsammans med andra, innan hon kan gora det pa egen hand. Med det medierade menas att larande sker med hjalp av mediering, d.v.s. med olika hjalpmedel som t.ex. karta och kompass och att rakna pa fingrarna. De situerade kannetecknen betyder att larande paverkas av den radande kontexten och situationen, det ar t.ex. lattare att lara sig tyska i Tyskland an i Ryssland. Det fjarde kannetecknet star for det kreativa och innebar att manniskor kreativt deltar i situationer och har formagan att omskapa, forandra och omforma samt att overskrida granser. Allt detta leder till larande. Enligt Vygotskij finns alltid ett nasta steg i larandet. Detta steg ar lika med utveckling och hanger ihop med att manniskan har en kreativ formaga (Strandberg 2006).

5. Metod

Vi har anvant oss av kvalitativa halvstrukturerade intervjuer med en sarskild ordningsfoljd pa fragorna men dar utrymme har lamnats for foljdfragor samt intervjupersonernas egna asikter.

En kvalitativ intervju har enligt Patel och Davidsson (2003) en lag grad av standardisering vilket ger utrymme for intervjupersonen att svara med egna ord. Vi anser att den kvalitativa intervjun lampar sig val da vi vill fa reda pa intervjupersonernas egna uppfattningar. Kannetecknande for den kvalitativa intervjun ar att bade intervjuare och den som blir intervjuad ar med och skapar samtalet. Vid en kvalitativ intervju ar det en fordel om intervjuaren ar insatt i och har kunskap om det omrade som ska studeras vilket passar oss bra da vi ar insatta i amnet genom var danslararutbildning och genom var tidigare erfarenhet av dansmatte (a.a).

5.a Urval

Vi har valt att rikta in oss pa hogstadiet som malgrupp eftersom dansmatteundervisningen som bedrivs i Sveriges skolor till stor del riktar sig mot den aldersgruppen. Eftersom antalet verksamma personer som arbetar med dansmatte ar begransat har urvalet baserats pa dessa personer och pa dem som haft mojlighet att medverka i var undersokning. Urvalsgruppen bestar av tre stycken slumpvis utvalda matematiklarare som arbetar med dansmatte i samarbete med en danslarare och ar verksamma pa hogstadiet, tre danslarare som undervisar i dansmatte pa hogstadiet samt tre grupper av elever fordelat pa fem, fyra och tva elever som har en dansmattelektion en timme var tredje vecka . Da fokus inte ligger pa genusperspektiv har ingen hansyn tagits till elevernas kon.

5.b Undersokningsupplagg

Intervjuerna med eleverna genomfordes i anslutning till deras dansmattelektion och de intervjuades i tre atskilda grupper med tva till fyra personer i varje, variationen berodde pa hur manga elever som var villiga att bli intervjuade i varje klass. Intervjuerna agde rum i elevernas gymnastiksal, en for dem bekant miljo, vilket ar viktigt for att de skall kanna sig bekvama (hanvisning till bok tillkommer) . Vi spelade in intervjuerna med hjalp av en MP3-spelare for att battre kunna aterge svaren pa fragorna och skrev aven ner svaren for att lattare fa en overblick over det som framkommit. Aven intervjuerna med matematiklarare 1 och danslarare 1 och 3 spelades in med MP3-spelare. Danslarare 3 intervjuade vi via telefon eftersom att personen inte befann sig i samma stad. Danslarare 2 och matematiklarare 2 intervjuades skriftligt via e-mail eftersom det var den enda mojligheten for dem att delta. Med dem har vi fort en dialog via e-mail for att fa en klarare bild av svaren. Intervjun med matematiklararen genomfordes pa skolan dar han arbetade. (Vi kommer andra om i ordningen och att skriva utforligare och hanvisa nar vi har fatt tag pa boken vi ska hanvisa till!)

Efter insamlandet av datan bearbetade vi den genom att lyssna pa de inspelade intervjuerna och valja ut det som for studien var relevant.


I resultatet har vi valt att endast ta med sadant som svarar mot vara fragestallningar och ar relevant for syftet med var undersokning. Vi vill visa pa en tydlig koppling mellan resultatet och fragestallningen. I resultatet redovisas elevernas svar tillsammans eftersom inga storre skillnader framkom i deras svar och vi vill visa den samstammighet som vi sag. Bade danslararnas och matematiklararnas svar presenteras individuellt eftersom vi ville visa pa de skillnader som framkom i deras svar for att sedan kunna diskutera dessa.

Intervju med elever

Fragestallning: Vad ar elevernas uppfattningar om dansmatte

Eleverna har en positiv installning till dansmatte och upplever det som lustfyllt. De tycker att de lattare kan uppskatta langd, matt och procent nar de far ova sina kunskaper praktiskt utanfor klassrummet. En elev tror anda att hon lar sig mer genom att rakna matematik i klassrummet dar hon anser det vara lattare att tillgodogora sig mer avancerad matematik. Nagra elever sager att nar de kommer tillbaka till klassrummet efter att ha arbetat med ett visst moment pa dansmattelektionen upptacker att de har lart sig nagot, aven om de inte markte det under dansmattelektionen.

Vissa moment lampar sig battre att lara genom att dansa och vissa genom att rakna i boken, t.ex. ar det enklare att rakna med mer exakta tal i matteboken an med kroppen da det kan vara svart att visa exempelvis 46 grader i en vinkel med armen, anser eleverna. De sager ocksa att det ar genom rorelsen som de lar sig och forstar vad det ar de gor. Nagra elever menar att om de raknar fel marks det pa ett annat satt nar de anvander sig av kroppen i utforandet an nar de skriver fel i matteboken. Alla papekar aven att det ar lattare att tanka realistiskt om de far dansa matematiken och koppla den till verkligheten pa det satt som sker i dansmatten. En elev sager att han genom att dansa matematiken anvander den i livet pa ett annat satt an nar han raknar i boken.

Samtliga elever utom en upplever dansa ar ett bra satt att lara sig matematik. De tycker det ar bra att fa uppleva matematiken pa ett annat satt an det traditionella dar de raknar i matteboken och lyssnar till lararens genomgangar. De upplever det ocksa roligare att lara sig genom anvandandet av kroppen och dansar hellre an att sitta still i klassrummet. De ar eniga om att matematiken lattare fastnar och stannar kvar i medvetandet genom rorelserna och nar de far anvanda kroppen. Dock uttrycker de en vilja till att ha dansmatte oftare an var tredje vecka for att fa en battre kontinuitet. Eleverna sager att nar de reflekterar over vad de har gjort pa dansmatten upptacker de att de har lart sig nagot. De tycker aven att dansmatten kan fungera som ett komplement till matematikgenomgangarna i klassrummet de ganger de inte har varit tillrackliga. Eleverna berattar att de ofta kommer pa sig sjalva med att tanka ???det har larde jag mig pa dansmatten??? nar de sitter och raknar i matteboken. Nagra av eleverna tycker det ar bra med gruppsamarbete som anvands i stor utstrackning pa dansmatten. Den elev som inte ar lika overtygad om att dansmatte ar ett bra satt for att lara sig matematik grundar det pa sin uppfattning om att det ar for enkelt. Hon kanner inte att hon blir tillrackligt utmanad eller far chans att visa sin matematiska kunskap pa dansmattelektionerna. Enligt henne tar varje ovning for lang tid och hon skulle vilja att fler moment hanns med under lektionen.

Eleverna sager sig ha markt att deras matematikkunskaper har forbattrats genom dansmatten. De har upptackt att de lar sig genom tanka pa nya och annorlunda satt och genom att de far anvanda sig av en metod som de tidigare inte anvant och som inbegriper att de far uppleva med kroppen. Detta bidrar till att de tycker sig forsta matematiken pa ett battre satt, enligt dem. Eleverna sager att dansmatten har bidragit till att gora dem mer avslappnade och trygga infor varandra i klassen och att de lar sig att lita pa sin egen formaga. De tycker att det till en borjan kan vara pinsamt att dansa infor varandra men menar att den kanslan forsvinner efter ett tag. Eleverna anser att den fysiska delen av dansmatten gor dem piggare och ett onskemal som framkommer ar att ha lektionen tidigt pa dagen for att de battre ska kunna halla koncentrationen under resten av dagens lektioner. De uppskattar aven den motionen de far genom dansmatten.

Intervju med danslararna

Fragestallning: Hur kopplas dansmatteundervisningen till malen for matematik

For danslarare 1 ar de matematiska malen alltid utgangspunkt for arbetet med dansmatten. Matematiklararen presenterar vad inom matematiken eleverna ska jobba med under en period och de bestammer tillsammans vilka omraden som ska ligga i fokus for arbetet och utifran det skapar hon dansovningarna. De tittar tillsammans pa malen som eleverna skall uppna i matematiken och de specifika malen for varje omrade, t.ex. i geometri. Darefter planerar hon dansovningar pa temat och ibland stammer hon av med matematiklararen innan lektionen om hon ar osaker pa svarighetsnivan. Matematiklararen ar nagorlunda inforstadd med vad danslararen skall gora och ibland haller de lektionen tillsammans. Efter lektionen utvarderar danslararen och matematiklararen hur det gick. Vad var for svart/for latt, blev nagot for utlamnande Hur reagerade eleverna Kan ovningen utvecklas pa nagot satt till veckan efter, i sa fall hur En standig dialog fors mellan dans och matematiklararen.

Danslarare 2 anvander kursmalen i matematik som en riktlinje och vissa av ovningarna ar skapade direkt utifran malen, men fokus i arbetet ligger pa att utifran det som eleverna arbetar med pa matematiklektionerna utarbeta en planering och skapa ovningar. Hon raknar med att matematiklararen har planerat arbetsomradena utifran kurmalen. Danslarare 2 framhaller hur viktigt det ar att eleverna vet vad de ska arbeta med och vad de skall lara sig pa dansmattelektionerna. Hon tycker aven det ar viktigt att presentera malet med varje ovning tydligt for eleverna. Under dansmattelektionerna involverar hon matematiklararen genom att gora honom aktiv pa olika satt, han finns t.ex. till hjalp nar eleverna behover matematisk vagledning. Danslarare 2 papekar aven att hon tycker det ar viktigt att matematiklararen tar med i sin bedomning av eleverna hur de arbetar pa dansmattelektionerna.

Danslarare 3 utgar fran kurmalen i matematik samt de lokala kursplanerna i amnet nar hon skapar lektionerna. Hon valjer tillsammans med matematiklararen ut nagra kurmal fran varje omrade att arbeta mot och de diskuterar vad hon ska lyfta fram pa lektionerna, vad eleverna har svart for och hur hon kan arbeta med dessa svarigheter pa dansmatten. Till en borjan i deras samarbete traffades de regelbundet tva timmar varannan vecka for att diskutera hur arbetet skulle laggas upp, vidare kom fokus att ligga pa att utveckla ovningar tillsammans och sedan att omsatta lektionerna i praktiken.

Hur upplever matematik- och danslararna att dansen paverkar maluppfyllelsen i matematik

Danslarare 1 anser att dansmatte ar ett satt for eleverna att trana sig pa att anvanda matematiska termer och hon ser pa dansmatten som ett medel dar eleverna visualiserar matematiken. Ett exempel ar att skapa en likbent triangel tillsammans i grupp, da kravs att alla maste veta vad en likbent triangel ar och hur den ser ut for att sedan kunna aterskapa den i rummet. Att lara matematik genom att dansa den ar en larstil som passar valdigt bra for vissa men som kan vara svar for andra, men hon papekar vikten av att skolan genom att erbjuda dansmatte erbjuder annu en metod for eleverna att lara, vilket hon tror kan bidra till okad maluppfyllelse. Danslarare 1 tycker emellertid det ar svart att saga om det enbart ar dansundervisningen som gor att eleverna lar sig matematik battre eller om det ar nagon annan faktor, men hon tror att dansmatteundervisningen i kombination med traditionell matematikundervisning bidrar till att utveckla eleverna i deras matematiska larande. Hon sager att eleverna i dansmatten tranar mycket pa att samarbeta, tala med varandra och losa problem tillsammans och for att losa en uppgift maste de kunna forklara for varandra vad de menar. Da kravs att de beharskar det matematiska spraket, d.v.s. de matematiska termerna. Detta tror hon stimulerar eleverna till att utveckla sina matematiska kunskaper. Eftersom dans ar nagot som fysiskt sker i rummet, tror hon att det bidrar till att elevernas uppfattning om matt? och rymd blir battre genom dansmatte. Genom att dansa matematiken tillsammans ovar eleverna t.ex. pa att veta hur mycket en meter eller ? av rummet ar och hur manga 50 % av alla i rummet ar. Enligt danslararen gor det faktum att alla elever utfor ovningarna tillsammans till att eleverna lar sig mer. Forsta gangen kanske inte alla forstar poangen med ovningen men efter ett par ganger blir det tydligt for alla.? De forsta gangerna danslarare 1 moter nya dansmatteelever mots hon ofta av fragor fran eleverna som ror vad de skall gora, hur de skall gora och hur de kan lara sig matte genom att dansa den, men nar arbetet kommit igang andras elevernas installning. Hon papekar att vissa elever snabbt ser mojligheterna i att anvanda kroppen som medel for att lara sig, medan andra tycker att det blir svarare nar de ska uttrycka sig kroppsligt och genom kroppen kunna visa hur de tanker. Enligt danslararen har en del elever svart med motoriken vilket kan vara ett problem. Hon framhaller att det finns de elever som tycker det ar generande eller obehagligt att dansa och rora sig infor de andra. Nagra kan ibland ha svart att forsta vad de ovar pa i dansmatten och upplever lektionerna som enbart danslektioner dar de inte ser kopplingen till matematiken, men danslarare 1 sager aven att det finns de elever som menar att de ovar samma sak som i matteboken men bara pa ett annat satt. Hon sager att dansmatten har blivit ett samtalsamne i klassen och eftersom att inte alla elever har dansmatte samtidigt ovar sig eleverna pa att aterberatta for varandra vad de har gjort pa dansmatten, nagot hon ser som positivt.

Danslarare 2 anser att dansmatten ger eleverna en okad forstaelse for matematik som amne vilket kan bidra till okad maluppfyllelse. Hon menar att om en elev far visualisera matematiken i verkligheten i stallet for att enbart arbeta med den teoretiskt i matteboken ocksa lattare lar sig den. Hon tror aven att eleverna lattare lar sig att uppskatta t.ex. vikt och matt genom att praktiskt fa uppleva och genom att eleverna far anvanda fler sinnen. Ju fler metoder eleverna anvander sig av, desto battre tror hon att de lar sig. Hennes overtygelse ar att dansmatten kan bidra till att alla elever uppnar godkant i matematik men hon tycker det ar svart att se utvecklingen tydligt eftersom hon bara traffar eleverna vid ett tillfalle var tredje vecka och ingen tydlig uppfoljning sker.

Danslarare 3 poangterar att alla elever lar sig pa olika satt och hon tycker det ar bra att en skola kan erbjuda olika inlarningsmetoder for att lara sig matematik. Att lara sig genom att anvanda kroppen ar en av metoderna som kan passa vissa elever battre. Hon tror aven att det ar bra for de elever som traditionellt som sett lar sig genom att rakna i boken att fa satta matematiken i ett annat sammanhang, vilket foljer innehallet i kursplanen. Danslarare 3 ser inte en utveckling hos alla elever alltid, men hon kan se att manga elever far en ???aha-upplevelse??? i vissa moment och forstar olika matematiska begrepp nar de gor matematiken med kroppen genom att de uttrycker det verbalt. Eftersom att hon inte foljer eleverna i den delen av matematikundervisningen som sker i klassrummet ar det svart for henne att djupgaende satta sig in i deras utveckling i matematik, men enligt de matematiklarare hon samarbetar med kommunicerar eleverna i hogre utstrackning verbalt pa dansmattelektionerna an i klassrummet. For att na okad maluppfyllelse betonar hon vikten av kontinuitet i dansmatteundervisningen, eleverna maste fa mota dansmatte under en langre period och inte bara under en lektion. Hon menar att det tar en tid for eleverna att faktiskt forsta vad undervisningen innebar och vad syftet ar.

Intervju med matematiklararna

Matematiklarare 1 hade ingen direkt uppfattning men hort talats om begreppet tidigare. Han var nyfiken pa metoden och positivt installd till dansmatte. Matematiklarare 1:s elever har en dansmattelektion var 3:e vecka och anser att eleverna genom dansmatten far anvanda sig av bade hoger och vanster hjarnhalva vilket han tycker ar bra. Han ser att de upplever dansmatten som nagot valdigt roligt och han tycker personligen det ar ett roligt och spannande inslag som fungerat bra som komplement till den ovriga undervisningen. Matematiklarare 1 tror framforallt att matematikinlarningen stimuleras genom att dansmatteundervisningen uppfattas som lustfylld. Han tror att eleverna lattare lar sig om de tycker att det ar roligt och han tror att det ar mer lustfyllt for eleverna an att sitta pa rumpan och rakna. Matematiklarare 1 sager att arbetet med dansmatten alltid utgar fran styrdokumenten och sedan konkretiseras malen i det verkliga arbetet. Matematiklarare 1 menar att dansmatte kan bidra till maluppfyllelse i matematik genom elevernas anvandande av bada hjarnhalvorna pa ett bade praktiskt och teoretiskt satt. Att eleverna upplever dansmatten som lustfylld anser han kan bidra till maluppfyllelsen. Han papekar ocksa vikten av att kunna samarbeta i grupp som ett betydelsefullt inslag i larandet. Matematiklarare 1 anser inte att underlaget ar tillrackligt stort an for att kunna se forbattring i elevernas resultat i matematik som ar kopplad till dansmatte. Dock sager han sig ha en positiv kansla och han ser att lektionerna har fungerat bra och att eleverna har en serios installning.

Matematiklarare 2 anser att alla fardighetsamnen i skolan, daribland matematik, bor ovas pa sa manga olika satt som mojligt for att eleverna skall utveckla baskunskaper och kunna befasta nya kunskaper. Hon menar att bra baskunskaper kravs for att na bra resultat och genom att ova pa olika satt skapas en bra grund att bygga vidare pa. Att eleverna far lara pa olika satt tror ar bra for inlarningen. Att hennes elever far mojlighet att anvanda sig av rorelse i matematikundervisningen ser hon som en mojlighet som kan leda till storre forstaelse for matematiska begrepp och tal samt till att se figurer pa ett annat satt an andra elever som inte har fatt denna mojlighet. Matematiklarare 2 sager att hon alltid har velat arbeta med matematik pa ett nytt och mindre traditionellt satt och med alternativa metoder som innebar mer praktiskt arbete. Det tar tid for henne att bryta monstret i hennes tankar som star for ett mer traditionellt arbete med matematik och hon sager ocksa att det kravs mod fran hennes sida att gora det. Samarbetet med danslararen ger henne inspiration och nya ideer som hjalper henne i arbetet. Hon har inget bevis pa att dansen kan bidra till maluppfyllelse i matematik men hon hoppas att den gor det.

1. Pa vilket satt anser du att dansen kan bidra till maluppfyllelse i
Jag hopas det men har inget bevis pa att det ar sa. Att lara pa sa manga satt som mojligt tror jag ar ett bra satt for inlarning. Det ar manga begrepp inom matten som eleven ska kunna och dem tranar vi mycket pa mattedansen. Jag kan dessutom paminna eleverna om vad ett begrepp betyder genom att paminna om vilken rorelse vi gjorde till den osv. och det kan forstarka deras forstaelse.

Diskussion: Snav syn pa dans

Dame Kathleen Kenyon

The Rocking-Horse Winner

Out of all the stories that I have read so far I must say that ???The Rocking-Horse Winner??? is the best one that I have read because of the relevance that it has to t he modern day individual. This story is about a family that is struggling to keep up a false image of them that will allow them to be part of the upper class. The truth is however that the father and mother in actuality have very low incomes, so much so that they cannot even afford to own their own car, they have to borrow the uncles??™ or otherwise take a taxi. All throughout the story the mother relates the families??™ struggles to lack of luck. The boy however who is their son finds himself in a position of luck when he continues to win bets that he places on different horses. The young boy begins to earn more money for his family every time he wins a bet. The secret to his success however is a wooden Rocking-horse that the boy keeps in his room. Whenever he wants to know which horse he should bet on he rides the rocking-horse till he reaches that place in his mind when the name of the horse just comes to him. The boy refers to this moment as getting there. All through the story the boy hears voices in his house saying ???There must be more money, there must be more money!??? When the boy finally gives his mom a good amount of money he thought that the voices would stop but they grew even louder demanding even more money. The boy??™s obsession with the races causes concern to everyone as his family urges him to stop betting but the boy cannot stop till he is on the rocking-horse at the end of the story going so fast that he falls off unconscious and eventually dies. Before the boy dies however he asks his mother ???do you think I??™m lucky now I told you I was and then he dies.???
This story was told by the point of view of the narrator and it was in my opinion the correct way to go for the simple reason that it made the story flow better. There is a great deal of symbolism in this story which makes it so much more interesting. Everything in the story seems to represent something in the modern day individual. The author in this story is trying to relate to us through the plot that most of us tend to live outside of our means. The parents in the story really cannot afford to live the type of lavish lifestyle that they are trying to live but they continue trying anyway to the point of exhaustion. This is also represented in the boy trying to ride the rocking-horse as hard as he can till he ???gets there??? or reaches the place that he wants to go. The conflict of the story however, is that the family will never reach that kind of lavish lifestyle without destroying themselves in the process. At the end of the story the boy is trying so hard to ride that rocking-horse as fast as he could that though he makes his family rich he ends up dead! The story ends with a man telling the boy??™s father ???My God Lester you??™re eighty-odd thousand to the good and a poor devil of a son to the bad.??? We can gain vastness, riches, and the whole world in our eyes, but are the sacrifices we have to take to get there worth it

Dame Kathleen Kenyon

Dame Kathleen Kenyon
Kathleen Kenyon was born on the 5th of January in 1906, she was the oldest daughter of renowned biblical researcher Sir Frederick Kenyon. During her studies at Somerville College, Oxford she became the first woman to become president of the Oxford Archaeological Society.
Kathleen first realised her love for archaeology after joining Gertrude Caton-Thompson on the famous all-woman excavation of Great Zimbabwe as a photographer in 1929. She worked with Mortimer Wheeler after she returned from Zimbabwe together they created and refined the method of stratigraphy which is now called the Wheeler-Kenyon Method. Kathleen dedicated most of her attention to the archaeological remains of ancient Britain during 1930 and 1951,working at a number of sites and publishing many findings.
During World War Two she became a lecturer in Palestinian Archaeology at the University of London. In 1937Kathleen played a main role in the founding of one of Europes most renowned archaeological institutes to this day, The Institute of Archaeology of University College London. The institute had the goal to provide and instruct people in how to properly excavate. She was a lecturer and secretary of the institute in the beginning. In 1951, Kathleen became the honorary director of the British School of archaeology in Jerusalem. Then from 1952-1958 she excavated Jericho. In 1961 Kathleen left to excavate in Jerusalem until the 1967 Six-Day War put an end to the project. This was Kathleen Kenyon??™s last excavation. From 1962 to 1973 she was principal at St. Hugh??™s College in Oxford.
In 1973 she was named a Dame by the Queen before she died in 1978 from a stroke. She is said to be the most influential woman archaeologist of the 20th century.

Excavation of Jericho
Kathleen Kenyon excavated in Jericho from 1952-1958 this excavation was her most famous work as an archaeologist. During the excavation of Jericho Kathleen Kenyon and her team found numerous plastered skulls beneath the floors of houses. They all had the lower jaw removed and the face modeled in lime plaster. Shells were placed in eye sockets and on some skulls red and black paint was used to represent facial features like hair. Kathleen??™s team also found huge quantities of food that was undisturbed in one of the layers that had thick walls but had been burned by fire food was very valuable in the ancient world.
What led her to excavate Jericho The reasons Kathleen Kenyon was led to excavate Jericho were, Jericho had always been an area of interest for biblical scholars who wanted to prove that the Book of Joshua was true, it also could of helped to settle some of the questions still in dispute about the Book of Joshua; after John Garstang??™s excavation and before Kathleen Kenyon??™s excavation work on other archaeological excavations since had formed more of an understanding of dating pottery, and also archaeological technique was continuously evolving,. Also, Jericho had always been an area of interest for biblical scholars who wanted to prove the historicity of the Book of Joshua. Her main objective was to date the beginning and the end of ancient Jericho and to answer whether the end of the Bronze Age could be connected to the period of Joshua.
Methods of excavation: She used improved methods of stratigraphy developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The Wheeler-Kenyon Method, as it is now called, was perfected during her Jericho excavation.
Problems encountered: Kathleen Kenyon ignored the common types of pottery that were found in Jericho and didn??™t find any pottery that was included in John Garstangs report, extensive painted pottery and other items which could be connected to the Late Bronze Age in his excavations of Jericho. There are two explanations as to why Kathleen didn??™t find any of these extensive painted pottery one being that the area she excavated was not large enough, it being only one thirteenth of the area that Garstang excavated. And the other being that the area she excavated may have been a poorer area she only found local pottery that could be linked to the poorer society of the area and time.
Significance of discovery: Whilst excavating at Jericho Kathleen Kenyon discovered that Jericho??™s was the oldest known continuously occupied human settlement. She said that some of the artifacts could be dated back to 8000 BC.
Bibliography >
Date viewed: 14th March 2010
This site had a good overview of her life and achievements including why she was led to excavate at Jericho. >
Date viewed: 14th March 2010
This website had a good biography of Kathleen Kenyon including a good outline of her career. >
Date viewed: 16th March 2010
This website helped me discover the problems that Kathleen Kenyon encountered during her excavation at Jericho. >
Date viewed: 16th March 2010 and 20th March 2010
This website had many small pieces of information that helped me in many parts of this assignment. >
Date Viewed: 14th March 2010, 16th of March 2010 and 24th March 2010
This site had a very good biography which had very useful information about her career before Jericho. >
Date viewed: 14th March 2010, 16th of March 2010 and 20th March 2010
This website was a very helpful biography of her life and career. I also got the picture on the first page from this site.

Daliy Life of Jesus

A Day in the Life of Jesus
Early in the morning, shiny sunlight shoots right on my face, this is a perfect start to my day. After I wake up, I go to the front yard of my house and say hey to my mom,you know her as Mary. She already has a breakfast ready for me, it is delicious, it has goat milk, cheese, bread and olives, it gives me energy for rest of the day. After I finish my breakfast, I help my mom to clean the front yard and clean the domestic animals??™ area before I go to the synagogue, my father Joseph is one of the carpenters, he takes me to the synagogue.
In the synagogue, I see lots of people, some of them are my friends, and we study the Torah. It is the book which defines the bet Talmud sum of Jewish belief. It will be all the first five book of the Christian bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. In these books, I learn the heart of jewfish belief: how god made a covenant with the patriarchs, brought their descendants out of Egyptian slavery, and gave them the law, including the Ten Commandments, and led us to the Promised Land, we also learn the Hebrew alphabets and individual words or the phases of the torah.
As I??™ve grown older, I??™ve learned many of the oral interpretations of this written law, but I??™ve just started this advanced education in the bet ta??™ mud??? the house of learning??? , some of my older friends they are very talented, they study the principle of the Torah and apply them to the everyday problems such as obeying the Sabbath. John, myfriend, tells me there is a special elder student who don??™t want to be teacher, farmer, or craftsman he may study medicine or art. He also tells me in the synagogue, there are a lot of things to do not only study, here also can be place to worship god or a place of discussion for legal settlements. I was surprised because I wasn??™t aware of those things. Today while when I am in the synagogue I learn a ton of things about it and spend time with my friends, it is the best time in every daily life to social with other people, make more friend, or even help other people if they need help. Just after the class, there is a student he doesn??™t know how to write the alphabet. Then I teach him how to write the letter, it is so wonderful because I see the smile on his face, and he is appreciates my help. There are a lots of happy children in Nazareth. I enjoy being parts of the beautiful family and happy community.
After the synagogue, I go to dad??™s work place just not too far from our house, when i get there, I watch my father craft the furniture or anything mad by wood and help him to do the easy work Basically I still need to memorize the process to make the article, I also heard my father say those tool hanging on the wall, most of them are from my grandfather or great grandfather, he tells me that because he wants me to be careful using those tool in the future, In the small town Nazareth, people very much respect my dad??™s job, to me he is the extremely a hard worker willing to learn. He can fix house construction parts, furniture, kitchen implements and farm tools. My dream is to be a carpenter like my father.
After working there is a short amount of free time, my next door neighbor, John, invites me to his house to have fun. Their family owns a farm, I feels like when I go to his house the most joyful things is to shepherd with him, it is so much fun, we walk on the grass, chatting with each other. While we are walking, sitting under the tree and listening attentively to birds twitter, after we shepherd his sheep to their filed, me and John and some adult get to play various board games and different forms of checkers, wonderful time pass real fast, I say good-bye to john, mom calls me to the supper, mommy prepares the vegetable, many of eggs, cheese, bread, butter, wine, nuts, fish and fruit, it is delicious, it fills up my hungry stomach. Thought the day I have periodically prayed to my Abba, when I led down to sleep and thank Him for my wonderful family, my riches of happiness and ask Him to protect our village and homes.
As I fell asleep I dreamed of my trip to Jerusalem big festival, the most popular day in the spring, the Passover. It is the most crowded pilgrimage in the Jerusalem. It started in the evening, the Passover name comes from the God??™s promise in Exodus??? I will pass over you, and no plague shall fall upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.??? As I remember, it was both a solemn and a festival occasion, and in this time of roman military occupation it took on an added idea, during the seven day of the Passover, the air of the Jerusalem was filled with the hope and promise of liberation. Before I get in to the city, I stare at the wall the rock straight order and each stone is huge by cut into rectangle.
And the entire street is choked by the pilgrims, when I get into the city, I see the huge bronze columns decorated with the form of pomegranates and lilies, beautiful galleries around the front construction. After I look outside the temple, the time is close to celebrate the Kordan Pesach, every family prepares lamb or goat and sacrifice at the Jewish temple. When we kill the goat or sheep, we need to take off the head and the legs, also remove the organ inside the body and roasted and eat with the matzo and maror. Another rule is, only the family brings offering can eat and all the lamb could not left to the next morning. But sometimes the member in the family can not finish the whole meat. So usually groups of family stay with my family and finish the meal. Before we start the meal, all the children sing the song “Ma Nishtanah” and “Dayenu” both two songs are devoted to tell the Exodus story .After listen to the beautiful lyrics people filling up each other??™s wine at the Seder table, and wash hands, this is Jewish??™s common tradition, and people start eating, half way through, the Passover story is told and we are free from slavery. All the families??™ members cheer and put their plate over the heads, it means we celebrate exoduses Egypt. We are not the slaves anymore. While we are having the wonderful meal, the youngest kid needs to stand up and ask the elder four questions to point out the difference between the holy day and a normal day, also mom and dad tell me the story about how our ancestry escaped Egypt. Although the story is kind of exaggerative and unimaginable, anyway we have a great time while we are eating. The lamb is good and the bread is tasty it isn??™t too dry, and we all have a great time.
book: Jesus life